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01: Can Science Cure the Common Cold? Introduction to the Scientific Method
This activity contains 20 questions.
Which of the following is a NOT good hypothesis?
Life on our planet originated from extraterrestrial sources, as microbial stowaways clinging to meteors that landed on Earth billions of years ago.
The first humans lived a hundred thousand years earlier than previously thought by scientists.
The forces that drive evolution can never be understood by scientists because they do not work according to the physical laws of the universe.
Single-celled bacteria evolved into multicellular plants and animals.
Li is studying the effects of a potential anticancer drug on cancer cells. The drug is designed to kill cancerous cells after a day of treatment. What would be the best control to use in her experiments?
normal cells exposed to the same solution in which the drug is dissolved, minus the drug itself
cancer cells not treated with anything
cancer cells exposed to the same solution in which the drug is dissolved, minus the drug itself
normal cells exposed to the anticancer drug for a day
cancer cells treated with the anticancer drug but exposed for a shorter time than the experimental group of cells
Justin conducts a survey to determine if exercise and the duration of a cold can be correlated. The graph below represents his results. Which of the following statements best summarizes Justin's findings?
People who exercise more often do not get colds.
The results show that alternative hypotheses can be eliminated.
People who do not exercise have a higher chance of getting a cold.
People who exercise more often typically have shorter cold durations than people who do not exercise.
There is no relationship between the frequency of exercise and the duration of a cold.
In a study of random volunteers who answered a newspaper ad for a cold remedy study, there was a correlation between the use of the remedy and a reduction in the duration of a cold. Why would this result alone not be enough to demonstrate that the cold remedy is effective?
Only double-blind, controlled experiments can provide supportive data for scientific hypotheses.
There might be differences among the volunteers that provide alternative hypotheses explaining the duration of their colds.
The study should include members of different ethnicities, age, and gender to ensure uniform results.
Statistics cannot be used in correlation studies, so the results have no significance.
Correlation studies use controlled experiments that may not apply to all people.
Which of the following hypotheses is NOT directly testable using experiments?
Mammals appeared in the living world before the dinosaurs became extinct.
Athletes are more aggressive than nonathletes.
Vitamin E supplements can extend life span.
Artificial sweeteners can cause bladder cancer.
Dr. Patel wants to test his hypothesis that consumption of glucosamine sulfate reduces joint pain. How can he reduce the likelihood that an alternative hypothesis can explain his experimental result?
He solicits 10 volunteers from the hospital staff and asks which individuals want to be in the control group.
He emails his colleagues in the hospital and chooses the first 15 volunteers for his experimental group.
He selects older individuals from the pool of volunteers since they experience more joint pain.
The women who volunteer to participate in the study are assigned to the control group, and the men who volunteer are placed in the experimental group.
He asks for volunteers among the hospital staff and chooses the control group by asking everyone to draw from a deck of numbered cards.
Which of the following is NOT considered a scientific statement?
Only one religion can be correct.
Sometimes the current belief about a natural phenomenon is false.
Intoxicated drivers are bad drivers.
People are more likely to date coworkers than strangers they meet while shopping.
What is the germ theory?
the premise that microorganisms cause many human diseases
a set of well-supported hypotheses linking high doses of vitamin C to reduced rates of infectious disease
an explanation of how the same common macromolecules make up the cells of all types of microbes
a well-accepted scientific principle that states people with healthy lifestyles are likely to stave off the common cold
Testing "if...then" predictions in order to determine the validity of a hypothesis is an example of
Under the umbrella of the scientific method, "truth" is defined as
any significant result in a double-blind, unbiased experiment.
a well-supported hypothesis that has at least 95% support of polled researchers.
the explanation that is based on the best-tested, fully supported hypothesis.
the hypothesis that remains after all alternative hypotheses have been eliminated.
Which of the following is the best case scenario, in a medical research experiment?
The research gets widely publicized in the popular media, such as TV, Internet, and radio.
A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled experiment is conducted.
A new treatment is shown to be significantly different than a placebo.
The placebo used in a study actually improves the health of some sick subjects.
Which of the following is most likely to rely upon a model organism?
a cross-sectional survey on the effect of environmental mercury exposure on cognitive (brain) development
a study that tests whether high doses of vitamin C reduce the risk of contracting the common cold
an experiment that tests whether a new vaccine prevents an uninfected person from getting HIV when the person is exposed to high-risk behavior
an ecological study on whether certain pollutants are associated with the occurrence of deformities in stream-dwelling fish
Which of the following would involve following one group of individuals as you measure exposure to a treatment and disease prevalence over time?
What experimental result would lead a scientist to reject the hypothesis that a certain nutritional supplement can increase a person's mental activity level?
There will be no statistically significant change in the control group's response to the nutritional supplement.
The control group will have a significantly lower response to the nutritional supplement compared to the experimental group.
There will be a significant change in the experimental group compared to the control group.
There will be no significant difference between the group that takes the nutritional supplement and those who take a placebo.
Imagine that a study tested a new drug and a placebo on pain reduction in cancer patients. The resulting data showed that the mean pain reduction for patients receiving the drug was more than the mean pain reduction for those receiving the placebo. Why can't you make any scientific conclusions based on this information?
Cancer patients differ tremendously from one to another in their response to drugs.
There might be enough variation in the patients to suggest a lack of statistical significance between groups.
Means are not statistical results and therefore cannot be used to evaluate the effect of a drug on experimental subjects.
Sampling error undoubtedly occurred because the subpopulation examined (cancer patients) was not representative of the whole population (humans).
Which of the following most likely indicates a true difference between two experimental treatment groups in a study, if the means differed between the groups?
Standard error is much higher in one group than the other.
The probability value was less than 0.01%.
The sample sizes of the two groups were identical.
The confidence interval around each mean was larger than the mean, for both groups.
A biotech company publishes results that indicate a large difference in recovery time from cancer in patients that take its new drug. The studies were conducted on a small group of cancer patients. Assuming the hypothesis is true, what would be the most likely conclusion someone would draw from this report?
The results are likely to be statistically significant.
The results are very unlikely to be statistically significant.
The results are unlikely to be statistically significant.
The results are very likely to be statistically significant.
Which of the following examples would be considered a primary scientific source?
Yvonne publishes part of her master's thesis research in a major scientific journal after two months of peer review and revision.
A talk show host interviews a famous cancer physician about his latest findings on chemotherapy for colon cancer.
A scientist who develops a new vaccine for influenza appears on television to discuss her work.
Students in Dr. Parker's lab publish their research results in the college newsletter.
The news of new gene therapy clinical trials is posted on a company's website.
Which of the following news stories from a media source contains scientific findings with the least credibility?
A large number of scientists, including the majority of living Nobel laureates, publish a statement calling for action on global warming, citing concerns about Earth's future environment.
A biotech company publishes its findings on the beneficial effects of a cholesterol-lowering drug in the
Journal of the American Medical Association
A biologist promotes a prescription drug that is produced by a company of which he is an employee.
A worldwide consortium of academic scientists funded by several governments publishes the sequence of the human genome.
Which of the following situations is NOT equivalent to a hypothesis test?
Patty treats similar species of fish in one aquarium with normal water and in another aquarium with slightly saltier water to see how the fish survive under different conditions.
Justin rubs ointment A on his left hand and ointment B on his right hand to determine if either treatment will help his chapped hands.
Jeanne drinks an herbal tea that her brother insists can cure her of allergies because it worked for him.
Henry feeds niger seeds to the control birds and corn kernels to the experimental birds to determine their food preference.
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