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09: Where Did We Come From? The Evidence for Evolution
This activity contains 23 questions.
Which of the following best describes why the process of evolution is easier to study in fruit flies than in birds?
Fruit flies have a much shorter generation time than birds.
Fruit flies don't live as long as birds.
Fruit flies have a simpler diet than birds.
Fruit flies are smaller than birds.
In a survey of lice populations it is found that lice in one region of the country have never evolved resistance to permethrin. What might explain this?
The winters are colder and so lice die from cold instead.
Residents of the area use large quantities of permethrin.
There are fewer school children in that region of the country.
The variation of permethrin resistance does not exist in the lice population of that region.
Darwin clarified his theory of common descent by stating that it was a theory of "common descent with modification." What does the phrase
common descent with modification
Humans descended from a preexisting species that lived in trees.
The species that exist today are descended from preexisting species that changed over time.
Natural selection changes species over time.
The ancestral species alive today were more primitive and lower down on a phylogenetic tree.
Lamarck's ideas about evolution differed from Darwin's ideas in that
Lamarck proposed that organisms might become simpler or more complex depending on their environment.
Lamarck proposed that individuals might change over the course of their lifetimes in response to changes in their environments.
Lamarck proposed that organisms became more complex over time and that the traits they developed could be passed on to their offspring.
Lamarck proposed that simple forms of life are created by spontaneous generation.
What is the role of geology in the theory of common descent?
Geology provides evidence as to why certain types of fossils are hard to find.
Geology provides evidence for climate history on islands.
Geology provides evidence for the exact location of the evolution of modern humans.
Geology provides evidence that Earth is very old and constantly changing.
While Darwin was investigating the organisms on the Galapagos Islands, he noticed that all the islands had finches, but the types of finches found on each island were unique to that island. The finches on each island were best described as members of the same
They were not members of a species or a population.
species and population.
Branch points in an evolutionary tree refer to
a mating between two different species.
extinct species that did not give rise to any new species.
modern species that gave rise to new species.
ancestral species from which are derived more recent species.
Which of the following groupings is the most appropriate according to the classification system developed by Linnaeus?
Group 1: penguin, ostrich, hummingbird Group 2: water strider bug, giant walking stick Group 3: whale, human, giant fruit bat
Group 1: whale, giant fruit bat, giant walking stick (an insect) Group 2: penguin, ostrich, human Group 3: hummingbird, bee, water strider bug
Group 1: penguin, water strider bug, whale Group 2: ostrich, giant walking stick (an insect), human Group 3: hummingbird, bee, giant fruit bat
Which of the following statements would be true of two species that have descended from the same common ancestor?
Those species will have DNA sequences in common.
Those species will exist on the earth today.
Those species will be identical.
Those species will have no anatomical features in common.
Paleontologists excavating an area that was once a shallow lake find fossils of two extinct species that were ancestors to modern horses. Why would scientists look for animal fossils in areas that were once near shallow water?
Fossils form better in shallow water because there is more sunlight.
Animal remains are often trapped and buried in sediments near bodies of water.
Animals can't swim and their remains are more likely to be found near bodies of water
Animals near the water would have been trapped during the catastrophic flood.
Many generations have passed since the common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees lived. Which of the following characteristics would this common ancestor (or missing link) be likely to have?
common ape-like characteristics, probably quadrupedal (four-legged)
common ape-like characteristics, probably bipedal
characteristics similar to a modern chimpanzee
characteristics similar to a modern human
How does the theory of special creation differ from Darwin's theory of evolution?
The theory of special creation proposes that all species were independently created and do not change over time, while Darwin observed that all species are related and change over time.
The theory of special creation proposes that species were independently created but can change over time to give rise to new species, while Darwin observed that all species derive from a single common ancestor that changed over time to give rise to new species.
The theory of special creation proposes that species can change over time and give rise to new species, in agreement with Darwin's theory of evolution.
The theory of special creation proposes that all species were independently created but can change over time, while Darwin observed that species are related and they change over time.
What level of classification is the distinction Mammalia?
What type of study is most appropriate for determining the time at which a common ancestor to humans and chimpanzees lived?
comparing homologous structures in humans and chimpanzees
comparing embryonic development between humans and chimpanzees
comparing vestigial structures in humans to structures in chimpanzees
comparing DNA sequences between humans and chimpanzees
Why is the classification system of Linnaeus still used today?
Linnaeus used Latin to name organisms and so there is no bias toward a current language.
Linnaeus was familiar with Darwin's ideas and incorporated them into his system.
Linnaeus unintentionally had a good grasp on evolutionary relationships we know today to be true.
Linnaeus based his system on structural similarities.
What can you conclude from the evolutionary tree shown below?
[Insert Belk, Biology: Science for Life, 3e, Chapter 09, Figure 9.24, page 249]
is more closely related to modern humans than
is related to modern humans.
The population of
was larger than the population of
is the missing link between humans and chimpanzees.
In what way is the theory of common ancestry supported by this figure?
[Insert Belk, Biology: Science for Life, 3e, Chapter 09, Figure 9.9, page 239]
It shows that anatomy is related to function.
It shows vestigial structures in mammals.
It shows a similar arrangement of bones in limbs of very different function.
It shows that many kinds of organisms have bones.
In what type of gene would you expect to find the greatest homology between cows and mice?
in genes involved in hair growth
in genes involved in food digestion
in genes involved in DNA replication
in genes involved in bone structure
Which of the following are vestigial structures?
dependent gametophytes in flowers
What is a hominin?
a human ancestor
a modern human
a human ancestor for which a complete fossil exists
What was shown by the experiments done by Stanley Miller in 1953?
RNA can replicate itself under certain conditions.
Building blocks of proteins and sugars can be formed from simple molecules under specific conditions.
Complete cells could be formed by treating mixtures of organic molecules with heat and electricity.
It is not possible to form cells from organic material under any condition.
Experiments that mix building block molecules with hot clay result in
cells that can perform metabolism but do not replicate.
chains of RNA, DNA, and protein.
Which of the following statements represents evidence that supports the theory of common descent but specifically contradicts the hypothesis of separate types?
The fossil record provides substantial evidence that humans and chimps share a common ancestor.
Many genes found in humans are also found in yeast and they perform the same function in yeast that they do in humans.
Radiometric dating methods show that Earth is billions of years old.
The fossil record provides copious unequivocal evidence that the species that inhabit Earth have changed dramatically over time.
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