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12: Prospecting for Biological Gold: Biodiversity and Classification
This activity contains 23 questions.
What is an herbarium?
a botanical garden
a drug made from plants
a collection of plants that are representatives of their species
a habitat with many annual plants
Classification schemes have been reorganized several times by systematists. What is the most common reason for reorganizing groups of living things?
new understanding about relationships between organisms that have already been described
the discovery of new organisms that make the existing schemes nonworkable
a new understanding of how evolution works that requires a new classification scheme
a need to make the system easiest for the greatest number of people
The six kingdoms commonly delineated by many biologists divide organisms into
broad groups that seem to have significant differences from each other.
groups based on their average number of cells.
groups that tend to maintain a geographical or environmental relationship.
groups arranged by total body mass.
Which of the following statements best describes the current knowledge about Earth's biodiversity?
There is uncertainty about all of these.
There is uncertainty about the number of species that have yet to be identified.
There is uncertainty about the diversity within various species.
There is uncertainty about the number of species that have been identified.
Relationships among modern species are often determined by comparing
the DNA segments that code for ribosomal RNA.
unrelated genes with no known purpose.
only identical segments of DNA.
only those living organisms that show similarities to extinct species.
The "tree of life" model gives information about the
the selection pressure that led to the divergence of a common ancestor into modern species.
geographic ranges of certain organisms.
the precise time period during which organisms lived.
relationships among species.
The most diverse group of eukaryotes are
A newly discovered organism would most likely be identified as a prokaryote if it
was relatively small compared to most human cells and produced compounds that are useful to humans.
lacked membrane-bound organelles and was unicellular.
lacked membrane-bound organelles and could make its own food.
was unicellular and immobile.
Which is of the following statements is a reason why bacteria and archaea are important in biochemical research?
They provide large cells that are relatively easy to work with.
Because they have no nucleus, scientists are interested in how they live without DNA.
Because they are technically not living organisms, scientists are interested in how they replicate.
Because they live in a variety of habitats, their biochemical makeup is diverse and complex.
The modern group designated as the Animal kingdom typically contains
all organisms that cannot perform photosynthesis.
organisms that can reproduce sexually and make their own food.
only macroscopic organisms that are visible without a microscope.
multicellular organisms that pursue and ingest other organisms.
While studying soil-dwelling organisms on a forest floor, a biologist discovers what appears to be a new species. The organism consists of string-like chains of cells that weave through a decaying tree stump. The biologist cultures the species in the lab and finds that its cells contain nuclei but no chlorophyll and that some cells occasionally transform into sacs of tiny spores. The biologist will likely classify the new species as a(n)
symbiotic combination of a bacterium and a protist.
A marine biologist has been observing a new microscopic organism discovered on a coral reef. Each cell in the organism contains a distinct nucleus, and after several weeks of close observation, it does not appear that the organism ingests other living organisms or parts of organisms as a source of energy. The biologist will likely classify this organism as a(n)
Evolution from an early confederation of cells is an idea associated with
The theory that eukaryotic cells were derived from symbiotic relationships between prokaryotic cells is most strongly supported by
a clear evolutionary succession of organisms leading from prokaryotes to eukaryotes.
research on the limited biochemistry of eukaryotes.
the fact that no eukaryotes have chlorophyll.
the similarity between eukaryotic mitochondrial DNA and the DNA of some bacteria.
Biologists use the term
to refer to
the relatively abrupt appearance of many modern species during the Cambrian period.
the widespread extinction of modern species due to the encroachment of civilization during the Cambrian period.
the asteroid crash responsible for the extinction of dinosaurs.
any group of mutations that causes rapid evolution of a particular species.
Vertebrates are distinguished from other organisms in their kingdom by the presence of
complicated body structures.
secreted toxins or venom.
Which circumstance would be most likely to result in adaptive radiation?
strong selection pressure following an environmental change
competition with related species
a new species in an environment with varied habitats and little competition
an environment where it is difficult to escape from predators
A new species has been discovered that lives in very salty water. This organism is most like to be a member of which group?
The maple tree group, or genus
, contains many similar types of trees. If a botanist suspects that these species are all the result of speciation from a common ancestral maple tree, what would be the best strategy for testing this hypothesis?
Devise several models and allow colleagues to choose the most logical.
Determine whether the species of maple trees could produce fertile offspring with trees from other genera.
Examine the similarities and differences in the DNA of all the maple species.
Compare the DNA from the largest maple tree to DNA from other tree species .
In the search for new antibiotics to fight bacterial diseases, many researchers focus attention on fungal species because
their biochemistry is so similar that fungi may provide clues to the weaknesses of bacteria.
the life cycles of fungi are simple and easy to analyze.
fungi often compete with bacteria for the same resources.
most researchers that have expertise with bacteria are also familiar with fungal characteristics.
The uppermost branches on a phylogenetic tree represent
species that are presently endangered.
the most recently evolved species.
common ancestors for most of the organisms.
points of divergence of species.
A scientist is interested in a compound from an organism on the endangered species list, but the organism is too rare to be used as a source of large quantities of this chemical. Why would it or would it not be logical to search for related chemicals in an organism of the same genus?
It would be logical since all members of the same genus share the identical metabolism.
It would be logical to look in a related organism, especially if the nonthreatened organism lives in a similar habitat.
It would be pointless since exploiting relatives of endangered species is a violation of the Endangered Species Act.
It would be a waste of time since all species have unique metabolism.
What is the goal of the United Nations Convention on Biodiversity?
to fund university studies on diversity
to encourage countries with rich biological resources to make agreements with biotech companies
to prevent companies the looting of biological gold from underdeveloped nations
to prevent the practice of looking for organisms for bioprospecting
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