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Practice Test

This activity contains 46 questions.

Question 1
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Gene cloning is crucial to any application involving one gene because _____. ()
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Question 2
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What is an advantage to using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) for generating a genomic library compared to a plasmid or phage that has historically been used for this process? ()
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Question 3
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In which of the following would it be advantageous to create and work with a cDNA (complementary DNA) library rather than a genomic library? ()
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Question 4
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The expression of the PAX-6 gene when vertebrate and fruit fly versions of the gene are exchanged between these animal groups illustrates _____. ()
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Question 5
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Which of the following enzymes is key to the automation of PCR (polymerase chain reactions)? ()
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Question 6
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Bacteria use restriction enzymes to _____. ()
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Question 7
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An enzyme that cuts DNA at a symmetrical sequence of bases is called _____. ()
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Question 8
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When a typical restriction enzyme cuts a DNA molecule, the cuts are staggered so that the DNA fragments have single-stranded ends. This is important in recombinant DNA work because _____. ()
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Question 9
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In genetic engineering, "sticky end" refers to _____. ()
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Question 10
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Which of the following enzymes could seal a nick in one strand of a double-stranded DNA molecule by creating a sugar-phosphate bond between the adjacent, unjoined nucleotides? ()
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Question 11
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To create recombinant DNA with long-term stability, it is necessary to have which of the following in the test tube? ()
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Question 12
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What two enzymes are needed to produce recombinant DNA? ()
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Question 13
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In recombinant methods, the term "vector" refers to _____. ()
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Question 14
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Which arrangement of the following four enzymes represents the order in which they would be used in a typical gene-cloning experiment resulting in the insertion of a cDNA into a bacterial plasmid? Begin with the gene's mRNA transcript. ()
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Question 15
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A scientist wishing to create an organism capable of breaking down several kinds of toxic waste combines genes from several species of bacteria to create a single "superbacterium." Which of the following would be needed to do this? ()
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Question 16
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A nucleic acid probe is used to _____. ()
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Question 17
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What is the source of the reverse transcriptase used in recombinant DNA technology? ()
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Question 18
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Because eukaryotic genes contain introns, they cannot be translated by bacteria, which lack RNA-splicing machinery. But if you want to engineer a bacterium to produce a eukaryotic protein, you can synthesize a gene without introns. A good way to do this is to _____. ()
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Question 19
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DNA synthesized using an RNA template is called _____. ()
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Question 20
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In the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the sequence of bases in the primers is important because it _____. ()
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Question 21
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A molecular biologist has isolated a short segment of DNA that she wants to replicate in vitro. First she heats the DNA, which separates the two strands, and then she adds _____. ()
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Question 22
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In the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, a heating phase and a cooling phase alternate. An original sample of DNA would have to pass through how many total rounds of heating and cooling before a sample is increased eight times in quantity? ()
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Question 23
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Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) _____. ()
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Question 24
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Separating DNA fragments by gel electrophoresis is useful for which of the following? ()
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Question 25
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Southern blotting is _____. ()
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Question 26
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Which of the following is the first step of the Southern blotting procedure? ()
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Question 27
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The dideoxyribonucleotide chain-termination method _____. ()
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Question 28
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The term "RFLP" stands for _____. ()
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Question 29
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RFLPs have been tremendously useful for genomic mapping studies because _____. ()
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Question 30
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The efficiency of cloning, and the ability to generate healthy cloned animals, has been largely hampered by the difficulty of _____. ()
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Question 31
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"Therapeutic cloning" refers to _____. ()
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Question 32
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Nuclear transplantation involves _____. ()
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Question 33
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_____ can give rise to any type of cell whereas _____ can give rise to a subset of cell types. ()
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Question 34
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During the process of differentiation, cells _____. ()
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Question 35
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Dolly, the sheep, was cloned from an adult cell. She had a number of health problems and died at a relatively young age. Three mules that were born in 2003 were cloned from fetal cells. If it turns out that the mules remain healthy and live normal lives, how would this outcome tie in with Gurdon's observations with tadpoles? ()
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Question 36
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All of the following are true regarding induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells except _____. ()
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Question 37
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All of the following are current applications of DNA technology in medicine except _____. ()
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Question 38
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A genetic marker is _____. ()
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Question 39
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Human nerve cells differ from human muscle cells because different sets of genes are expressed; in each type of cell, different genes are transcribed into mRNA and translated into protein. Which of the following techniques would be the most efficient way to identify the genes that these cells express? ()
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Question 40
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Gene therapy involves _____. ()
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Question 41
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A molecular biologist used a retroviral vector to introduce a gene coding for a certain human enzyme into mouse cells. One cell line was isolated that was able to make the human enzyme, but it had lost the ability to express an endogenous, normally expressed gene in the process. What is the best explanation for these results? ()
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Question 42
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DNA fingerprints are used to determine whether Sam could be the father of Becky's baby. Sam is not the father if _____ genetic fingerprint shows some bands not present in _____ genetic fingerprint. ()
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Question 43
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DNA fingerprints used as evidence in a murder trial look something like supermarket bar codes. The pattern of bars in a DNA fingerprint shows _____. ()
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Question 44
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Which of the following would be considered a transgenic organism? ()
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Question 45
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Transgenic organisms can be scientifically or commercially useful only if _____. ()
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Question 46
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In genetic engineering, the highly active plasmid from Agrobacterium tumefaciens is used to _____. ()
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