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Word Roots

centro- = center (centriole: organelle that "centers" chromosomes during cell division)

chloro- = green; -plast = molded (chloroplast: the site of photosynthesis in plants and algae)

cili- = hair (cilium: a short hair-like cellular appendage with a microtubule core)

cyto- = cell ;-plasm = fluid (cytoplasm: a semifluid medium in a cell in which organelles are located)

-ell = small (organelle: a small membrane-enclosed structure with a specialized function found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells)

endo- = inner (endomembrane system: the system of membranes within a cell that includes the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, and the plasma membrane)

endo- = inner; sym- = together; bios- = living (endosymbiosis: when one organism lives inside another organism)

eu- = true (eukaryotic cell: a cell that has a true nucleus)

extra- = outside (extracellular matrix: the substance in which animal tissue cells are embedded)

flagell- = whip (flagellum: a long whip-like cellular appendage that moves cells)

glyco- = sweet (glycoprotein: a protein covalently bonded to a carbohydrate)

lyso- = loosen (lysosome: a membrane-enclosed sac of hydrolytic enzymes that a cell uses to digest macromolecules)

micro- = small; -tubul = a little pipe (microtubule: a hollow rod of tubulin protein in the cytoplasm of almost all eukaryotic cells)

micro- = small; -graphy = a picture (micrograph: a picture of a small image, usually taken on a microscope)

nucle- = nucleus; -oid = like (nucleoid: the region where the genetic material is concentrated in prokaryotic cells)

plasm- = molded; -desma = a band or bond (plasmodesmata: an open channel in a plant cell wall)

pro- = before; karyo- = nucleus (prokaryotic cell: a cell that has no nucleus)

-soma = a body (chromosome: structure present in the nucleus of all animal cells, contains genetic information; ribosome: structure that assists in the manufacture of proteins; peroxisome: organelle that breaks down cellular wastes)

thylaco- = sac or pouch (thylakoid: a series of flattened sacs within chloroplasts)

trans- = across; -port= a harbor; vesic- = sac or bladder (transport vesicle: a membranous compartment used to enclose and transport materials from one part of a cell to another)

vacu- = empty (vacuole: sac that buds from the ER, Golgi, or plasma membrane)

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