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This activity contains 51 questions.

Question 1
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Consider the figure below. _____ is to a mitochondrion as _____ is to a chloroplast.

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Question 2
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In humans, oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged with the atmosphere via the _____.
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Question 3
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In an experiment, mice were fed glucose (C6H12O6) containing a small amount of radioactive oxygen. The mice were closely monitored, and in a few minutes radioactive oxygen atoms showed up in _____.
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Question 4
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The function of cellular respiration is to _____.
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Question 5
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How many kilocalories are captured in ATP from 1.5 moles of glucose?
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Question 6
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As shown below, an electron carrier, such as _____, acts as an energy-storage molecule when it is _____.

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Question 7
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The principal molecules involved in transporting electrons to the electron transport chain are composed of _____.
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Question 8
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A molecule is oxidized when it _____.
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Question 9
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Which of the following best describes the electron transport chain?
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Question 10
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Bacteria have no membrane-enclosed organelles. However, some still generate ATP through cellular respiration. Where is the electron transport chain found in these organisms?
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Question 11
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Where does glycolysis occur in a eukaryotic cell?
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Question 12
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Where do the reactions of the citric acid cycle occur in eukaryotic cells?
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Question 13
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Where in bacterial cells does the citric acid cycle occur?
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Question 14
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Of the metabolic pathways listed below, the only pathway found in almost all organisms is _____.
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Question 15
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A small amount of ATP is made in glycolysis _____.
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Question 16
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A chemist has discovered a drug that blocks phosphoglucoisomerase, an enzyme that catalyzes the second reaction in glycolysis. He wants to use the drug to treat people with bacterial infections. However, he can't do this because _____.
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Question 17
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What is the name of the process in which glucose is converted to pyruvate?
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Question 18
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In preparing pyruvate to enter the citric acid cycle, which of the following steps occurs?
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Question 19
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When pyruvate is converted to acetyl CoA, _____.
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Question 20
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In eukaryotes, most of the high-energy electrons released from glucose by cell respiration _____.
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Question 21
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Most of the NADH that delivers high-energy electrons to the electron transport chain comes from _____.
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Question 22
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Why is the citric acid cycle called a cycle?
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Question 23
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The energy production per glucose molecule through the citric acid cycle is _____.
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Question 24
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The major (but not sole) energy accomplishment of the citric acid cycle is the _____.
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Question 25
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Once the citric acid cycle has been completed, most of the usable energy from the original glucose molecule is in the form of _____.
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Question 26
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Which of the following serves primarily as a hydrogen-atom carrier molecule in cells?
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Question 27
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What happens to the energy that is given up by electrons as they move through the electron transport chain?
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Question 28
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The ATP synthase in a human cell gets energy for making ATP directly from _____.
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Question 29
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What is the mechanism of action for the enzyme ATP synthase? ATP is formed _____.
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Question 30
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In cellular respiration, which one of the following is performed directly by the electron transport chain (or its components)?
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Question 31
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The enzyme ATP synthase catalyzes the phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP. In eukaryotic cells, the energy needed for this endergonic reaction is derived from _____.
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Question 32
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Which one of the following is the source of the energy that produces the chemiosmotic gradient in mitochondria?
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Question 33
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In a eukaryotic cell, the electron transport chain is precisely located in or on the _____.
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Question 34
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Rotenone is a poison that blocks the electron transport chain. When it does so, glycolysis and the citric acid cycle eventually halt as well. This is because _____.
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Question 35
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Carbon monoxide is a toxic gas because it directly _____.
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Question 36
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Where does most of the ATP produced in cellular respiration come from?
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Question 37
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Which of the following directly requires molecular oxygen (O2)?
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Question 38
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During aerobic respiration, molecular oxygen (O2) is used _____.
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Question 39
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Through respiration, humans breathe in O2 and breathe out CO2. However, what would happen if we did not breathe in O2?
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Question 40
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A single glucose molecule produces about 38 molecules of ATP through the process of cellular respiration. However, this only represents approximately 38% of the chemical energy present in this molecule. The rest of the energy from glucose is _____.
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Question 41
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The overall efficiency of respiration is approximately _____.
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Question 42
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In the equation shown below, during cellular respiration _____ is oxidized and _____ is reduced.

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Question 43
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Substrate-level phosphorylation directly generates ATP during a chemical reaction. As a single molecule of glucose is completely oxidized, in the presence of oxygen, how many molecules of ATP are gained by substrate-level phosphorylation?
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Question 44
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Sports physiologists at an Olympic training center want to monitor athletes to determine at what point their muscles begin to function anaerobically. They could do this by checking for a buildup of _____.
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Question 45
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Carbon monoxide is a colorless, odorless, and toxic gas. However, breathing carbon monoxide will still allow you to produce _____ from one glucose molecule.
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Question 46
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In the absence of oxygen, cells need a way to regenerate which compound?
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Question 47
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Muscle tissues make lactic acid from pyruvate so that you can _____.
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Question 48
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Organisms can use other molecules as fuel for cellular respiration. When protein molecules are used, _____ are produced as waste.
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Question 49
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A gram of fat oxidized by cellular respiration produces approximately _____ as much ATP as a gram of carbohydrate.
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Question 50
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During cellular respiration, glucose is oxidized. However, an intermediate, _____, can be siphoned off and used to synthesize fats.
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Question 51
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When growing in a nutrient-rich environment, bacteria can use the provided amino acids to synthesize their proteins. However, should the environment change, they can synthesize their amino acids using _____.
End of Question 51

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