Content Frame
Note for screen reader users: There is text between the form elements on this page. To be sure that you do not miss any text, use item by item navigation methods, rather than tabbing from form element to form element
[Skip Breadcrumb Navigation]

Post-Test



This activity contains 70 questions.

Question 1
1
Open Hint for Question 1 in a new window
An adaptation is _____.
 
End of Question 1


Question 2
2
Open Hint for Question 2 in a new window
Which of the following is a true statement about Charles Darwin?
 
End of Question 2


Question 3
3
Open Hint for Question 3 in a new window
At the time Darwin voyaged on HMS Beagle, the popularly accepted theory in Europe that explained the origin of Earth's plants and animals held that the various species _____.
 
End of Question 3


Question 4
4
Open Hint for Question 4 in a new window
What was significant to Darwin about the fauna and flora of the Galápagos Islands?
 
End of Question 4


Question 5
5
Open Hint for Question 5 in a new window
German shorthaired pointers, Scottish terriers, and Beagles are capable of interbreeding and producing viable, fertile offspring. The diversity seen in these breeds of dogs is the result of _____.
 
End of Question 5


Question 6
6
Open Hint for Question 6 in a new window
Which one of the following contradicts Darwin's views?
 
End of Question 6


Question 7
7
Open Hint for Question 7 in a new window
The breeding of plants and animals with desired traits by humans is called _____.
 
End of Question 7


Question 8
8
Open Hint for Question 8 in a new window
If members of a population have traits that are both heritable and variable among individuals, then _____.
 
End of Question 8


Question 9
9
Open Hint for Question 9 in a new window
Darwin inferred that there is a struggle for existence in which each individual's odds of surviving to reproduce are quite poor, based on the observation that _____.
 
End of Question 9


Question 10
10
Open Hint for Question 10 in a new window
"Differential success in reproduction" is the essence of _____.
 
End of Question 10


Question 11
11
Open Hint for Question 11 in a new window
In natural selection, _____ determine which phenotypes are successful.
 
End of Question 11


Question 12
12
Open Hint for Question 12 in a new window
When they were first sold, certain insecticides were highly effective in killing mosquitoes. Today, dozens of mosquito generations later, a much smaller proportion of these insects die when sprayed with the same chemicals. Fewer insects are killed today because _____.
 
End of Question 12


Question 13
13
Open Hint for Question 13 in a new window
Experiments and observations indicate that natural selection acts _____.
 
End of Question 13


Question 14
14
Open Hint for Question 14 in a new window
A number of mosquito populations today are resistant to specific insecticides that once were effective in killing them. Biologists believe that insecticide resistance evolved in mosquitoes because _____.
 
End of Question 14


Question 15
15
Open Hint for Question 15 in a new window
Fossils are most likely to be found in _____.
 
End of Question 15


Question 16
16
Open Hint for Question 16 in a new window
Which best summarizes the order of appearance of major life-forms (from earliest to most recent) and the time at which life first appeared as documented by the fossil record?
 
End of Question 16


Question 17
17
Open Hint for Question 17 in a new window
Evidence from molecular biology supports the theory of evolution by showing that _____.
 
End of Question 17


Question 18
18
Open Hint for Question 18 in a new window
All known organisms use genetic information to produce protein molecules via the same genetic code. This finding strongly supports the hypothesis that _____.
 
End of Question 18


Question 19
19
Open Hint for Question 19 in a new window
The bones of the wings of bats are homologous to the bones of the _____ of their ancestors.
 
End of Question 19


Question 20
20
Open Hint for Question 20 in a new window
An important challenge to traditional (pre-1860) ideas about species was the observation that seemingly dissimilar organisms, such as hummingbirds, humans, and whales, have similar skeletal structures. This most directly suggested to biologists that _____.
 
End of Question 20


Question 21
21
Open Hint for Question 21 in a new window
Organisms that possess homologous structures probably _____.
 
End of Question 21


Question 22
22
Open Hint for Question 22 in a new window
Members of the same population _____.
 
End of Question 22


Question 23
23
Open Hint for Question 23 in a new window
A population is _____.
 
End of Question 23


Question 24
24
Open Hint for Question 24 in a new window
The smallest unit that can evolve is a _____.
 
End of Question 24


Question 25
25
Open Hint for Question 25 in a new window
Mutation plays a large role in the microevolution of bacterial populations. Why?
 
End of Question 25


Question 26
26
Open Hint for Question 26 in a new window
The major weakness of Darwin's theory of descent with modification by natural selection (as it existed in 1859) was that it could not explain _____.
 
End of Question 26


Question 27
27
Open Hint for Question 27 in a new window
_____ and _____ generate variation in populations.
 
End of Question 27


Question 28
28
Open Hint for Question 28 in a new window
Sexual recombination occurs when chromosomes are shuffled in _____ and fertilization.
 
End of Question 28


Question 29
29
Open Hint for Question 29 in a new window
The original source of all genetic variation is _____.
 
End of Question 29


Question 30
30
Open Hint for Question 30 in a new window
Genetic variation in a population of animals or plants depends mainly on which of the following?
 
End of Question 30


Question 31
31
Open Hint for Question 31 in a new window
If a population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and remains in equilibrium, which of the following will be true?
 
End of Question 31


Question 32
32
Open Hint for Question 32 in a new window
In the Hardy-Weinberg theorem, 1 represents _____.
 
End of Question 32


Question 33
33
Open Hint for Question 33 in a new window
In the Hardy-Weinberg theorem, p2 represents _____.
 
End of Question 33


Question 34
34
Open Hint for Question 34 in a new window
In a large population of monkeys, the frequency of the recessive allele is 0.1. There is no migration and no selection. What is the frequency of the dominant allele? Assume that there are two alleles of this gene.
 
End of Question 34


Question 35
35
Open Hint for Question 35 in a new window
Suppose that, with regard to a particular gene with two alleles, A and a, we know that 60% of the alleles in the gene pool of a particular large population are A. We observe this population for five generations, during which we know that no mutation, selection, or migration has occurred. After this period, the frequency of the a allele is expected to be _____.
 
End of Question 35


Question 36
36
Open Hint for Question 36 in a new window
In a certain group of African people, 4% are born with sickle-cell disease (homozygous recessive). If this group is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, what percentage of the group are heterozygous and thus have the selective advantage of being more resistant to malaria?
 
End of Question 36


Question 37
37
Open Hint for Question 37 in a new window
Which of the following conditions would prevent a population from remaining in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?
 
End of Question 37


Question 38
38
Open Hint for Question 38 in a new window
A moth population is at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Which one, if any, of the following conditions would tend to disturb the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?
 
End of Question 38


Question 39
39
Open Hint for Question 39 in a new window
Approximately one out of every 2,500 Caucasians in the United States are born with the recessive disease cystic fibrosis. According to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium equation, approximately how many people are carriers?
 
End of Question 39


Question 40
40
Open Hint for Question 40 in a new window
What is the term for a change in the relative frequencies of alleles in a population over several generations?
 
End of Question 40


Question 41
41
Open Hint for Question 41 in a new window
Which of the following scenarios would most likely result in the microevolution of a population of humans?
 
End of Question 41


Question 42
42
Open Hint for Question 42 in a new window
"Natural selection" and "evolution" are two terms that are sometimes confused, even by freshman biology students. What is the relation between natural selection and evolution?
 
End of Question 42


Question 43
43
Open Hint for Question 43 in a new window
Which of the following is the best example of gene flow?
 
End of Question 43


Question 44
44
Open Hint for Question 44 in a new window
If a volcanic eruption killed all of the lizards on an island except for a tiny group of survivors, this event would probably cause _____.
 
End of Question 44


Question 45
45
Open Hint for Question 45 in a new window
Each of us is part of the ongoing evolution of the human species. Which of the following forms of microevolution is currently most important in human populations worldwide?
 
End of Question 45


Question 46
46
Open Hint for Question 46 in a new window
The evolutionary effects of genetic drift are greatest when _____.
 
End of Question 46


Question 47
47
Open Hint for Question 47 in a new window
The severe reduction in genetic variability seen in the endangered cheetah is probably attributable to _____.
 
End of Question 47


Question 48
48
Open Hint for Question 48 in a new window
Which of the following most accurately and directly measures an organism's Darwinian fitness compared to other individuals in the same population?
 
End of Question 48


Question 49
49
Open Hint for Question 49 in a new window
In a large population of randomly breeding individuals, the frequency of a recessive allele is initially 0.3. There is no migration and no selection. Humans enter this ecosystem and selectively hunt individuals showing the dominant trait. When the gene frequency is reexamined at the end of the year, _____.
 
End of Question 49


Question 50
50
Open Hint for Question 50 in a new window
In a population of bears, which is most likely to be considered to have the greatest Darwinian fitness?
 
End of Question 50


Question 51
51
Open Hint for Question 51 in a new window

Biologists often use the term fitness when speaking of evolution. Below are descriptions of four male grizzly bears. According to your understanding of evolution, which bear would biologists consider the most fit?

NAME
George
Ben
Spot
Sandy
SIZE
10 ft

1,200 lb
8.5 ft

1,000 lb
9 ft

1,100 lb
9 ft

1,000 lb
NUMBER OF CUBS FATHERED
19
25
20
20
NUMBER OF CUBS SURVIVING TO ADULTHOOD
2
0
1
5
COMMENTS George is very large, very healthy. The strongest bear.Ben mated with the greatest number of females.When the area that Spot lived in was destroyed by fire, Spot was able to move to a new area and change his feeding habits.Sandy was killed by an infection resulting from a cut in his foot.
AGE AT DEATH
13 yr
16 yr
12 yr
9 yr

The fittest bear was _________.

 
End of Question 51


Question 52
52
Open Hint for Question 52 in a new window
To be successful in evolutionary terms, an organism must _____.
 
End of Question 52


Question 53
53
Open Hint for Question 53 in a new window
Which of the following changes in the gene pool results in an adaptation to the environment?
 
End of Question 53


Question 54
54
Open Hint for Question 54 in a new window
A geneticist studied a grass population growing in an area of erratic rainfall and found that plants with alleles for curled leaves reproduced better in dry years, and plants with alleles for flat leaves reproduced better in wet years. This situation would _____.
 
End of Question 54


Question 55
55
Open Hint for Question 55 in a new window
Critics sometimes claim that the theory of evolution is flawed because it is based on random changes: mutations. They say that a random change in an organism (or a car or a TV set) is likely to harm it, not make it function better. What statement refutes these critics?
 
End of Question 55


Question 56
56
Open Hint for Question 56 in a new window
A large population of mice is isolated on an island. There are two varieties of the mice, brown and gray. Their fur colors closely match the gray rock outcrops and brown soils of the island. Hawks are their main predators. This situation most likely reflects the outcome of _____.
 
End of Question 56


Question 57
57
Open Hint for Question 57 in a new window
Natural selection primarily acts on _____.
 
End of Question 57


Question 58
58
Open Hint for Question 58 in a new window
Stabilizing selection _____.
 
End of Question 58


Question 59
59
Open Hint for Question 59 in a new window
Birds with average-sized wings survived a severe storm more successfully than other birds in the same population with longer or shorter wings. This illustrates _____.
 
End of Question 59


Question 60
60
Open Hint for Question 60 in a new window
A population of squirrels is preyed on by small hawks. The smaller squirrels can escape into burrows. The larger squirrels can fight off the hawks. After several generations, the squirrels in the area tend to be very small or very large. What process is responsible for this outcome?
 
End of Question 60


Question 61
61
Open Hint for Question 61 in a new window
Selection that acts, over evolutionary time, to enhance traits that increase an individual's ability to mate frequently or with quality partners is known as _____.
 
End of Question 61


Question 62
62
Open Hint for Question 62 in a new window
Which would be a good example of intrasexual selection?
 
End of Question 62


Question 63
63
Open Hint for Question 63 in a new window
Antibiotic resistance in bacteria is an example of which of the following?
 
End of Question 63


Question 64
64
Open Hint for Question 64 in a new window
Scientists have warned doctors of the danger of their increasing use of antibiotics for treating minor illnesses. They are concerned because _____.
 
End of Question 64


Question 65
65
Open Hint for Question 65 in a new window
How does the overuse of antibiotics in medicine and agriculture contribute to a major public health threat?
 
End of Question 65


Question 66
66
Open Hint for Question 66 in a new window
Under some conditions, heterozygotes have greater reproductive success than homozygotes. What is this called?
 
End of Question 66


Question 67
67
Open Hint for Question 67 in a new window
Which of the following would seem to be an example of neutral variation?
 
End of Question 67


Question 68
68
Open Hint for Question 68 in a new window
Sickle-cell disease is a debilitating disease that results from being homozygous recessive for the "sickle-cell allele" of a hemoglobin gene. Why is the allele present and even common in many human populations?
 
End of Question 68


Question 69
69
Open Hint for Question 69 in a new window
Which of the following statements best describes how the process of natural selection works?
 
End of Question 69


Question 70
70
Open Hint for Question 70 in a new window
Which one of the following is a misconception regarding natural selection?
 
End of Question 70


Clear Answers/Start Over





Pearson Copyright © 1995 - 2011 Pearson Education . All rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson .
Legal Notice | Privacy Policy | Permissions

[Return to the Top of this Page]