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This activity contains 70 questions.

Question 1
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An adaptation is _____.
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Question 2
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Which of the following is a true statement about Charles Darwin?
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Question 3
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At the time Darwin voyaged on HMS Beagle, the popularly accepted theory in Europe that explained the origin of Earth's plants and animals held that the various species _____.
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Question 4
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What was significant to Darwin about the fauna and flora of the Galápagos Islands?
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Question 5
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German shorthaired pointers, Scottish terriers, and Beagles are capable of interbreeding and producing viable, fertile offspring. The diversity seen in these breeds of dogs is the result of _____.
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Question 6
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Which one of the following contradicts Darwin's views?
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Question 7
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The breeding of plants and animals with desired traits by humans is called _____.
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Question 8
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If members of a population have traits that are both heritable and variable among individuals, then _____.
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Question 9
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Darwin inferred that there is a struggle for existence in which each individual's odds of surviving to reproduce are quite poor, based on the observation that _____.
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Question 10
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"Differential success in reproduction" is the essence of _____.
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Question 11
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In natural selection, _____ determine which phenotypes are successful.
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Question 12
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When they were first sold, certain insecticides were highly effective in killing mosquitoes. Today, dozens of mosquito generations later, a much smaller proportion of these insects die when sprayed with the same chemicals. Fewer insects are killed today because _____.
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Question 13
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Experiments and observations indicate that natural selection acts _____.
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Question 14
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A number of mosquito populations today are resistant to specific insecticides that once were effective in killing them. Biologists believe that insecticide resistance evolved in mosquitoes because _____.
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Question 15
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Fossils are most likely to be found in _____.
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Question 16
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Which best summarizes the order of appearance of major life-forms (from earliest to most recent) and the time at which life first appeared as documented by the fossil record?
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Question 17
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Evidence from molecular biology supports the theory of evolution by showing that _____.
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Question 18
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All known organisms use genetic information to produce protein molecules via the same genetic code. This finding strongly supports the hypothesis that _____.
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Question 19
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The bones of the wings of bats are homologous to the bones of the _____ of their ancestors.
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Question 20
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An important challenge to traditional (pre-1860) ideas about species was the observation that seemingly dissimilar organisms, such as hummingbirds, humans, and whales, have similar skeletal structures. This most directly suggested to biologists that _____.
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Question 21
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Organisms that possess homologous structures probably _____.
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Question 22
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Members of the same population _____.
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Question 23
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A population is _____.
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Question 24
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The smallest unit that can evolve is a _____.
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Question 25
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Mutation plays a large role in the microevolution of bacterial populations. Why?
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Question 26
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The major weakness of Darwin's theory of descent with modification by natural selection (as it existed in 1859) was that it could not explain _____.
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Question 27
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_____ and _____ generate variation in populations.
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Question 28
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Sexual recombination occurs when chromosomes are shuffled in _____ and fertilization.
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Question 29
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The original source of all genetic variation is _____.
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Question 30
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Genetic variation in a population of animals or plants depends mainly on which of the following?
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Question 31
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If a population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and remains in equilibrium, which of the following will be true?
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Question 32
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In the Hardy-Weinberg theorem, 1 represents _____.
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Question 33
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In the Hardy-Weinberg theorem, p2 represents _____.
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Question 34
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In a large population of monkeys, the frequency of the recessive allele is 0.1. There is no migration and no selection. What is the frequency of the dominant allele? Assume that there are two alleles of this gene.
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Question 35
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Suppose that, with regard to a particular gene with two alleles, A and a, we know that 60% of the alleles in the gene pool of a particular large population are A. We observe this population for five generations, during which we know that no mutation, selection, or migration has occurred. After this period, the frequency of the a allele is expected to be _____.
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Question 36
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In a certain group of African people, 4% are born with sickle-cell disease (homozygous recessive). If this group is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, what percentage of the group are heterozygous and thus have the selective advantage of being more resistant to malaria?
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Question 37
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Which of the following conditions would prevent a population from remaining in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?
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Question 38
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A moth population is at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Which one, if any, of the following conditions would tend to disturb the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?
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Question 39
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Approximately one out of every 2,500 Caucasians in the United States are born with the recessive disease cystic fibrosis. According to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium equation, approximately how many people are carriers?
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Question 40
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What is the term for a change in the relative frequencies of alleles in a population over several generations?
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Question 41
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Which of the following scenarios would most likely result in the microevolution of a population of humans?
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Question 42
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"Natural selection" and "evolution" are two terms that are sometimes confused, even by freshman biology students. What is the relation between natural selection and evolution?
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Question 43
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Which of the following is the best example of gene flow?
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Question 44
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If a volcanic eruption killed all of the lizards on an island except for a tiny group of survivors, this event would probably cause _____.
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Question 45
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Each of us is part of the ongoing evolution of the human species. Which of the following forms of microevolution is currently most important in human populations worldwide?
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Question 46
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The evolutionary effects of genetic drift are greatest when _____.
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Question 47
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The severe reduction in genetic variability seen in the endangered cheetah is probably attributable to _____.
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Question 48
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Which of the following most accurately and directly measures an organism's Darwinian fitness compared to other individuals in the same population?
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Question 49
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In a large population of randomly breeding individuals, the frequency of a recessive allele is initially 0.3. There is no migration and no selection. Humans enter this ecosystem and selectively hunt individuals showing the dominant trait. When the gene frequency is reexamined at the end of the year, _____.
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Question 50
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In a population of bears, which is most likely to be considered to have the greatest Darwinian fitness?
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Question 51
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Biologists often use the term fitness when speaking of evolution. Below are descriptions of four male grizzly bears. According to your understanding of evolution, which bear would biologists consider the most fit?

10 ft

1,200 lb
8.5 ft

1,000 lb
9 ft

1,100 lb
9 ft

1,000 lb
COMMENTS George is very large, very healthy. The strongest bear.Ben mated with the greatest number of females.When the area that Spot lived in was destroyed by fire, Spot was able to move to a new area and change his feeding habits.Sandy was killed by an infection resulting from a cut in his foot.
13 yr
16 yr
12 yr
9 yr

The fittest bear was _________.

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Question 52
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To be successful in evolutionary terms, an organism must _____.
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Question 53
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Which of the following changes in the gene pool results in an adaptation to the environment?
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Question 54
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A geneticist studied a grass population growing in an area of erratic rainfall and found that plants with alleles for curled leaves reproduced better in dry years, and plants with alleles for flat leaves reproduced better in wet years. This situation would _____.
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Question 55
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Critics sometimes claim that the theory of evolution is flawed because it is based on random changes: mutations. They say that a random change in an organism (or a car or a TV set) is likely to harm it, not make it function better. What statement refutes these critics?
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Question 56
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A large population of mice is isolated on an island. There are two varieties of the mice, brown and gray. Their fur colors closely match the gray rock outcrops and brown soils of the island. Hawks are their main predators. This situation most likely reflects the outcome of _____.
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Question 57
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Natural selection primarily acts on _____.
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Question 58
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Stabilizing selection _____.
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Question 59
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Birds with average-sized wings survived a severe storm more successfully than other birds in the same population with longer or shorter wings. This illustrates _____.
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Question 60
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A population of squirrels is preyed on by small hawks. The smaller squirrels can escape into burrows. The larger squirrels can fight off the hawks. After several generations, the squirrels in the area tend to be very small or very large. What process is responsible for this outcome?
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Question 61
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Selection that acts, over evolutionary time, to enhance traits that increase an individual's ability to mate frequently or with quality partners is known as _____.
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Question 62
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Which would be a good example of intrasexual selection?
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Question 63
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Antibiotic resistance in bacteria is an example of which of the following?
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Question 64
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Scientists have warned doctors of the danger of their increasing use of antibiotics for treating minor illnesses. They are concerned because _____.
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Question 65
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How does the overuse of antibiotics in medicine and agriculture contribute to a major public health threat?
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Question 66
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Under some conditions, heterozygotes have greater reproductive success than homozygotes. What is this called?
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Question 67
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Which of the following would seem to be an example of neutral variation?
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Question 68
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Sickle-cell disease is a debilitating disease that results from being homozygous recessive for the "sickle-cell allele" of a hemoglobin gene. Why is the allele present and even common in many human populations?
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Question 69
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Which of the following statements best describes how the process of natural selection works?
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Question 70
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Which one of the following is a misconception regarding natural selection?
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