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This activity contains 34 questions.

Question 1
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Lake Victoria is home to a group of related fishes known as cichlids. Hundreds of forms are present, differing slightly in their color patterns, habitat use, and feeding behavior. What is the best method for scientists to determine conclusively whether the fish are members of a population that has a lot of variation or members of entirely different species?
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Question 2
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New branches form on the tree of life through the process of _____.
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Question 3
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According to the biological species concept, a species is _____.
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Question 4
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Imagine that part of a population of South American finches is blown by a storm onto an island far offshore and manages to survive and reproduce there for a period of 10,000 years. Next, a climate change results in lower sea levels and the reconnection of the island with the mainland. Members of the formerly isolated island finch population can now interact freely with members of the original mainland population. Which of the following observations would lead you to conclude that the island finch population had evolved into a distinct biological species?
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Question 5
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The _____ species concept is practical for identification of unfamiliar species and has been used to describe most of the 1.8 million known species on Earth.
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Question 6
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For which one of the following groups would the biological definition of species be useful?
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Question 7
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Each biological species is genetically isolated from other species. Why do the species evolve independently?
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Question 8
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Imagine that part of a population of flies is blown from the California coast to an offshore island. The island flies have no contact with the mainland flies for 10,000 years. Then an earthquake rearranges the landscape and the island is rejoined to the mainland. The former island flies can now mingle freely with the mainland flies. If attempts at mating between flies from the two groups are successful and the resulting offspring grow up strong and healthy and have offspring of their own, you could conclude that _____.
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Question 9
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Three species of frogs—Rana pipiens, Rana clamitans, and Rana sylvatica—all mate in the same ponds, but they pair off correctly because they have different calls. This is a specific example of a _____ barrier, called _____ .
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Question 10
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Which of the following reproductive barriers prevents individuals of different species from mating with each other?
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Question 11
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Two species of water lilies in the same pond do not interbreed because one blooms at night and the other during the day. The reproductive barrier between them is an example of _____.
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Question 12
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Which of the following is an example of a postzygotic reproductive barrier?
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Question 13
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Which is a postzygotic reproductive barrier?
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Question 14
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Individuals of different species living in the same area may be prevented from interbreeding by responding to different mating dances. This is called _____.
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Question 15
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There are two groups of pine trees that appear to be very similar. However, one releases pollen in January, when the female structures of that group are receptive, and one in March. What kind of reproductive barrier is this?
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Question 16
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Which of the following is an example of mechanical isolation?
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Question 17
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Which of the following is an example of a prezygotic barrier?
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Question 18
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A splinter population is separated from the main population of a species. Each of the populations begins to evolve independently. When has speciation occurred?
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Question 19
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Speciation is likely to occur between a parent population and a population that has become allopatric if _____.
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Question 20
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Which of the following scenarios is most likely to lead to allopatric speciation?
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Question 21
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In the mountains of the southeastern United States, there are many similar but distinct salamander species that are restricted to particular mountaintops or ridge systems. They are found in patches of suitable high-elevation habitat, separated by unsuitable lowland areas. This distribution pattern indicates _____.
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Question 22
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Sympatric speciation typically occurs through _____ and through _____.
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Question 23
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Which would be a typical scenario of sympatric speciation to produce a new plant species?
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Question 24
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A new species can arise in a single generation _____.
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Question 25
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Scientists estimate that _____% of plant species are polyploids, mostly generated through _____.
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Question 26
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What do Dodd's experiments with fruit flies indicate?
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Question 27
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What do the examples of the Japanese land snail and the monkey flower indicate?
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Question 28
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Which statement is true of hybrid zones?
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Question 29
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The work of the Grants on two sympatric species of Galápagos finches has shown _____ to be an important source of genetic variation in both species.
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Question 30
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Biologists have found more than 500 species of fruit flies on the various Hawaiian islands, all apparently descended from a single ancestor species. When this ancestor colonized the island chain, it found few competitors: Many insect and fly families present in other regions are absent from the isolated Hawaiian Islands. This example illustrates _____.
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Question 31
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Lake Victoria, in the African Rift Valley, is home to hundreds of species of cichlid fishes, each with slightly different diets and habits. All these fishes probably evolved from one or a few ancestors within the past 100,000 years, making them an example of _____.
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Question 32
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Comparison of fossils with living humans seems to show that there have been no significant physical changes in Homo sapiens in 30,000 to 50,000 years. What might an advocate of punctuated equilibrium say about this?
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Question 33
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What is the major evidence for the punctuated equilibrium model of evolution?
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Question 34
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According to a recent survey of many studies, an average plant or animal lineage might produce a new species approximately once every _____.
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