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This activity contains 67 questions.

Question 1
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An important interaction between fungi and plants is a mycorrhiza, which _____.
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Question 2
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Which of the following is a true similarity between algae and plants?
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Question 3
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Gametangia are _____.
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Question 4
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What structures allow plants to readily take up carbon dioxide from the atmosphere?
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Question 5
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Vascular tissues of plants include _____.
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Question 6
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These embryophytes have swimming sperm, lack a complex vascular system, and cannot grow tall. What are they?
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Question 7
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Land plants as a group probably share a recent common ancestor with _____.
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Question 8
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Small nonvascular plants that lack lignin, true roots, and true leaves are called _____.
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Question 9
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Which of these groups require a water film for reproduction because they have swimming, flagellated sperm?
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Question 10
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Seedless plants include _____.
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Question 11
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Most species of plants are _____.
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Question 12
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In a standard plant life cycle, gametophytes are _____.
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Question 13
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Alternation of generations _____.
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Question 14
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Plants undergo alternation of generations in which _____.
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Question 15
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Which of the following produce eggs and sperm in mosses?
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Question 16
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The innovation essential to the survival of bryophytes on land was _____.
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Question 17
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You take a close look at a moss, pulling apart the spongy mat to find an individual sprig. You see a larger leafy-looking green structure with a smaller filament and capsule on top. Where is the gametophyte?
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Question 18
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How are gametes produced by bryophytes?
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Question 19
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Ferns and mosses are mostly limited to moist environments because _____.
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Question 20
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When you see a green mass of fern fronds, you are looking at the _____.
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Question 21
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Strolling through the woods, you would be least likely to notice which of the following?
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Question 22
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Fern spores are _____, and the familiar, "leafy" fern plant itself is _____.
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Question 23
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Both mosses and ferns possess _____.
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Question 24
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Fern gametophytes are _____.
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Question 25
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During the Carboniferous period, forests consisting mainly of _____ produced vast quantities of organic matter, which was buried and later became coal.
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Question 26
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An explorer found a plant that had roots, stems, and leaves. It had no flowers but produced seeds. This plant sounds like a(n) _____.
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Question 27
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Which evolutionary advance gave the gymnosperms a unique adaptive advantage at the time they were evolving?
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Question 28
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Which of the following best describes how fertilization occurs in a conifer?
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Question 29
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The male gametophyte in pine is commonly known as _____.
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Question 30
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The key factor that made possible the colonization of dry environments by conifers and other gymnosperms was most likely the evolution of _____.
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Question 31
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In a pine, the embryo develops within the _____.
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Question 32
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Which one of the following is true of seed plants, but not of seedless plants?
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Question 33
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Male floral parts include _____.
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Question 34
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The "female" structures of angiosperms are called _____, and they have _____ at their base.
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Question 35
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The defining reproductive adaptation of angiosperms is the _____.
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Question 36
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A fruit is a ripened _____.
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Question 37
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A major difference between angiosperms and gymnosperms involves the _____.
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Question 38
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The diploid generation of the plant life cycle always _____.
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Question 39
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Which option gives all of the structures that are present in both gymnosperms and angiosperms?
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Question 40
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Many desert plants complete their life cycles very rapidly during relatively moist conditions after it rains. In such "desert annuals," a plant may germinate, grow, and release seeds within a few weeks. These are probably _____.
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Question 41
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All seed plants _____.
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Question 42
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In the process of angiosperm pollination, pollen grains are transferred from the _____ to the _____.
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Question 43
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In a flowering plant, meiosis occurs within the _____, producing a spore that develops into a female gametophyte.
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Question 44
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After fertilization, the _____ develops into a seed and the _____ develops into a fruit.
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Question 45
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A pea pod is formed from _____. A pea inside the pod is formed from _____.
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Question 46
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Which one of the following best describes the function of fruits?
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Question 47
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Most of the seeds and spices used for human consumption come from _____.
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Question 48
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Unlike most angiosperms, grasses are pollinated by wind. As a consequence, some unnecessary parts of grass flowers have almost disappeared. Which of the following parts would you expect to be most reduced in a grass flower?
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Question 49
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You find a wildflower that has large, brilliantly colored petals, but it has no odor. What can you deduce about its pollinators?
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Question 50
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Like gymnosperms, many angiosperm nut trees are wind-pollinated. To conserve energy, these angiosperms do not produce complete flowers (complete flowers have all four of the basic parts). Which flower part would wind-pollinated angiosperms be most missing?
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Question 51
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_____ percent of prescription drugs are extracted or derived from plants.
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Question 52
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In contrast to plants, the cell walls of fungi are composed of _____.
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Question 53
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There is a fungus in Oregon that covers 2,200 acres! The bulk of this fungus is most likely _____.
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Question 54
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Why does the fungal mycelium grow in a branching network that maximizes the surface area?
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Question 55
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Fungi obtain nutrients through _____.
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Question 56
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The figure below shows threadlike _____, which form a branched network called a _____.

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Question 57
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Which is true of the evolutionary history of fungi?
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Question 58
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Some whitish scum was found growing near the edge of a pond. Under a microscope, each of its cells was found to contain two nuclei. This means the scum must be _____.
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Question 59
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Which one of the following statements about fungi is true?
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Question 60
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Two mating types of hyphae may fuse to produce hyphae with two distinct nuclei per cell. These are called _____.
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Question 61
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These fungi have flagellated spores, and many are parasites, including one that causes a very damaging disease of frogs.
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Question 62
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Familiar "toadstools" (mushrooms), puffballs, and shelf fungi are classified in this group.
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Question 63
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Many fungi can alternate between sexual and asexual modes of reproduction. Of these, the _____ mode is often the most commonly used, particularly when conditions are _____.
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Question 64
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Most plant diseases are caused by _____.
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Question 65
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From the human perspective, which of the following kinds of fungi would be considered the least useful or beneficial?
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Question 66
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Lichens are _____.
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Question 67
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You are hiking through a bog in northern Maine and notice what appears to be moss growing on the tamarack trees. You take a sample back to the lab. Under a light microscope, you see something like the image below. This "moss" must be _____.

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