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Chapter 17: Plants, Fungi, and Colonization of Land
This activity contains 67 questions.
An important interaction between fungi and plants is a mycorrhiza, which _____.
helps plants take up nutrients and water
causes the decay of cellulose and lignin
controls soil nematodes
sickens herbivores that attempt to feed on plants
provides plants with sugars
Which of the following is a true similarity between algae and plants?
Plants and algae both are eukaryotic photosynthesizers.
Plants and algae both have discrete leaves, stems, and roots.
Plants and algae both have a waxy, waterproof cuticle.
Plants and algae both protect their zygotes and embryos in moist chambers.
Plants and algae both have xylem and phloem.
Gametangia are _____.
protective chambers that keep gametes and early embryos moist
the site of development of the fertilized egg in algae
the site of gamete fertilization in all fungi
critical to maintaining the plant's moisture in arid environments
multicellular in algae, single-celled in most plants
What structures allow plants to readily take up carbon dioxide from the atmosphere?
Vascular tissues of plants include _____.
xylem for conducting water and minerals, and phloem for conducting dissolved organic molecules
xylem for conducting organic molecules, and phloem for conducting water and minerals
lignin for conducting organic molecules, and phloem for conducting sugars
phloem for conducting water and minerals, and lignin for conducing organic molecules
cuticle for conducting water, and phloem for conducting organic molecules
These embryophytes have swimming sperm, lack a complex vascular system, and cannot grow tall. What are they?
Land plants as a group probably share a recent common ancestor with _____.
Small nonvascular plants that lack lignin, true roots, and true leaves are called _____.
Which of these groups require a water film for reproduction because they have swimming, flagellated sperm?
bryophytes, lycophytes, and ferns
bryophytes, lycophytes, ferns, and gymnosperms
lycophytes and ferns only
Seedless plants include _____.
bryophytes, lycophytes, and ferns
only nonvascular plants
bryophytes and gymnosperms
mosses and angiosperms
Most species of plants are _____.
In a standard plant life cycle, gametophytes are _____.
female, but not male, reproductive structures
a myth dreamed up by biology professors to confuse undergraduates
Alternation of generations _____.
is unique to plants
consists of a diploid gametophyte stage alternating with a haploid sporophyte stage
always cycles between haploid and diploid stages with similar appearance
is distinguished by haploid and diploid stages that are both multicellular
involves production of offspring who already have their own offspring developing inside
Plants undergo alternation of generations in which _____.
the sporophyte generation alternates with the gametophyte generation
the vascular generation alternates with the nonvascular generation
male plants alternate with female plants
male gametes alternate with female gametes
growth of stems and leaves alternates with growth of roots and fruits
Which of the following produce eggs and sperm in mosses?
the diploid germ cells
the reproductive structures of the flower
The innovation essential to the survival of bryophytes on land was _____.
freedom from the need for water to reproduce
the retention of the egg and embryo on the parent plant
You take a close look at a moss, pulling apart the spongy mat to find an individual sprig. You see a larger leafy-looking green structure with a smaller filament and capsule on top. Where is the gametophyte?
It is in the fibrous, rootlike structures.
It is the leafy-looking green structure plus the filament and capsule structure on top.
It is everything you see except the filament and capsule, which is the sporophyte.
It consists of a tiny flat disk of cells that then gives rise to the main body of the moss, which is the sporophyte. You probably cannot see it.
It consists of tiny spores that are released from the capsule when conditions are right.
How are gametes produced by bryophytes?
mitosis of specialized cells in the gametophyte
mitosis of haploid spores
meiosis of haploid spores
meiosis of sporophyte cells
meiosis of gametophyte cells
Ferns and mosses are mostly limited to moist environments because _____.
their pollen is carried by water
they lack a cuticle
their seeds do not store much water
they have swimming sperm
they lack vascular tissue
When you see a green mass of fern fronds, you are looking at the _____.
structure that develops from spores
structure that produces eggs and sperm
Strolling through the woods, you would be least likely to notice which of the following?
a fern sporophyte
a fern gametophyte
a moss gametophyte
an angiosperm sporophyte
a gymnosperm sporophyte
Fern spores are _____, and the familiar, "leafy" fern plant itself is _____.
haploid … haploid
haploid … diploid
diploid … haploid
diploid … diploid
produced by the gametophyte … the sporophyte
Both mosses and ferns possess _____.
a free-living sporophyte
a free-living gametophyte
a gametophyte that is dependent on the sporophyte
a sporophyte that is dependent on the gametophyte
a system with three distinct generations or life stages
Fern gametophytes are _____.
part of the asexual life cycle
produced from haploid gametes
photosynthetic diploid organisms
free-living, multicellular organisms
found on the underside of fern leaves (fronds)
During the Carboniferous period, forests consisting mainly of _____ produced vast quantities of organic matter, which was buried and later became coal.
lycophytes and ferns
gymnosperms and early angiosperms
An explorer found a plant that had roots, stems, and leaves. It had no flowers but produced seeds. This plant sounds like a(n) _____.
Which evolutionary advance gave the gymnosperms a unique adaptive advantage at the time they were evolving?
Which of the following best describes how fertilization occurs in a conifer?
A sperm cell swims through a film of moisture to fertilize the egg.
A pollen grain carried by wind fertilizes the egg.
A pollen grain carried by wind develops into a gametophyte that produces a sperm that fertilizes the egg.
A sperm cell carried by wind fertilizes the egg.
A pollen grain swims through a film of moisture to fertilize the egg.
The male gametophyte in pine is commonly known as _____.
The key factor that made possible the colonization of dry environments by conifers and other gymnosperms was most likely the evolution of _____.
xylem and phloem
the production of separate male and female spores
seeds and pollen
In a pine, the embryo develops within the _____.
Which one of the following is true of seed plants, but not of seedless plants?
The sporophyte is dependent on the gametophyte.
The sporophyte is large, and the gametophyte is small and independent.
The gametophyte is reduced and dependent on the sporophyte.
The spore is the main means of dispersing the offspring.
Sporangia are present.
Male floral parts include _____.
stigma, style, and ovary
stamens and carpels
stigmas and anthers
stigmas and ovaries
The "female" structures of angiosperms are called _____, and they have _____ at their base.
sepals … ovules
carpels … ovules
anthers … filaments
anthers … pollen
anthers … ovules
The defining reproductive adaptation of angiosperms is the _____.
germinated pollen grain
A fruit is a ripened _____.
A major difference between angiosperms and gymnosperms involves the _____.
presence or absence of the ovary
presence or absence of vascular structures
presence or absence of alternation of generations
dominance or lack of dominance of the sporophyte generation
production of spores
The diploid generation of the plant life cycle always _____.
is called the gametophyte
is larger and more conspicuous than the haploid stage
develops from a spore
produces eggs and sperm
Which option gives
of the structures that are present in both gymnosperms and angiosperms?
pollen and seeds
pollen, seeds, and ovules
Many desert plants complete their life cycles very rapidly during relatively moist conditions after it rains. In such "desert annuals," a plant may germinate, grow, and release seeds within a few weeks. These are probably _____.
either conifers (gymnosperms) or an angiosperms
All seed plants _____.
produce separate female and male spores
produce eggs and sperm on the same gametophyte
exhibit a dominant gametophyte generation
In the process of angiosperm pollination, pollen grains are transferred from the _____ to the _____.
ovary … anther
stigma … ovary
anther … sepal
carpel … stigma
anther … stigma
In a flowering plant, meiosis occurs within the _____, producing a spore that develops into a female gametophyte.
After fertilization, the _____ develops into a seed and the _____ develops into a fruit.
ovule … ovary
pollen grain … ovule
ovary … ovule
egg … ovule
egg … ovary
A pea pod is formed from _____. A pea inside the pod is formed from _____.
an ovule … a carpel
an ovary … an ovule
an ovary … a pollen grain
an anther … an ovule
endosperm … an ovary
Which one of the following best describes the function of fruits?
to protect and disperse the seeds
to reward pollinators
to store water for consumption during drought
to store food for the plant to use over the winter
to distract herbivores from eating the leaves
Most of the seeds and spices used for human consumption come from _____.
Unlike most angiosperms, grasses are pollinated by wind. As a consequence, some unnecessary parts of grass flowers have almost disappeared. Which of the following parts would you expect to be most reduced in a grass flower?
You find a wildflower that has large, brilliantly colored petals, but it has no odor. What can you deduce about its pollinators?
Its pollinators locate flowers by visual cues rather than by smell.
Most likely it is pollinated by flies.
Its pollinators are rewarded with nectar.
It is probably wind-pollinated.
This plant will be extinct soon because it is not likely to attract any pollinators.
Like gymnosperms, many angiosperm nut trees are wind-pollinated. To conserve energy, these angiosperms do not produce complete flowers (complete flowers have all four of the basic parts). Which flower part would wind-pollinated angiosperms be most missing?
_____ percent of prescription drugs are extracted or derived from plants.
Less than five
At least twenty-five
In contrast to plants, the cell walls of fungi are composed of _____.
There is a fungus in Oregon that covers 2,200 acres! The bulk of this fungus is most likely _____.
Why does the fungal mycelium grow in a branching network that maximizes the surface area?
to increase the uptake of water
to increase the odds that fungi will run into a compatible type and mate
to increase the area of contact between fungi and their food sources
to increase the ability of the fungus to survive a period of food shortage or drought
to allow fungi to move across areas with hostile conditions for growth
Fungi obtain nutrients through _____.
The figure below shows threadlike _____, which form a branched network called a _____.
mycelia … dikaryon
hyphae … charophycean
mycelia … hypha
hyphae … mycelium
sporangia … dikaryon
Which is true of the evolutionary history of fungi?
Fungi are closely related to plants and have generally been associated with plants as harmful parasites.
Fungi are more closely related to animals than to plants. Fungi produced organic matter and nutrients, which then paved the way for plants to colonize land.
Fungi are more closely related to animals than to plants by ancestry. Ecologically, fungi and plants are highly interdependent and they colonized land at about the same time.
Fungi are prokaryotes, and they share with the bacteria a tendency to feed by absorption and play a key role in decomposition.
Fungi are a large group within the kingdom Protista, and they are mostly unicellular with a few spectacularly large multicellular species.
Some whitish scum was found growing near the edge of a pond. Under a microscope, each of its cells was found to contain two nuclei. This means the scum must be _____.
some kind of alga
a plant gametophyte
a bacterial biofilm
a plant sporophyte
Which one of the following statements about fungi is true?
The dominant stage of the life cycle is usually diploid.
Fungal spores are diploid.
Most species obtain their nutrients by parasitizing animals.
Many species carry out most of their reproduction asexually.
Haploid gametes come in several "mating types" rather than two sexes (e.g., sperm and eggs).
Two mating types of hyphae may fuse to produce hyphae with two distinct nuclei per cell. These are called _____.
These fungi have flagellated spores, and many are parasites, including one that causes a very damaging disease of frogs.
club fungi (basidiomycetes)
sac fungi (ascomycetes)
Familiar "toadstools" (mushrooms), puffballs, and shelf fungi are classified in this group.
club fungi (basidiomycetes)
sac fungi (ascomycetes)
Many fungi can alternate between sexual and asexual modes of reproduction. Of these, the _____ mode is often the most commonly used, particularly when conditions are _____.
asexual … harsh and variable
asexual … favorable for growth and stable
sexual … favorable to rapid growth
sexual … very uncrowded (fungi are present at low density in the environment)
sexual … competitor- and predator-free
Most plant diseases are caused by _____.
From the human perspective, which of the following kinds of fungi would be considered the least useful or beneficial?
smuts and rusts
Lichens are _____.
mutualistic associations of fungi and plant roots
the sexual stage of fungi
close associations of photosynthesizers and fungi
used to produce blue cheese
You are hiking through a bog in northern Maine and notice what appears to be moss growing on the tamarack trees. You take a sample back to the lab. Under a light microscope, you see something like the image below. This "moss" must be _____.
a relative of pineapple
a true moss
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