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This activity contains 49 questions.

Question 1
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The two distinguishing features of mammals are the presence of _____.
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Question 2
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The two distinguishing features of vertebrates are the presence of _____.
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Question 3
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Which of the following is correctly classified?
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Question 4
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How do lampreys differ from all other extant vertebrates?
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Question 5
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A horror movie features a giant man-eating cylindrical sea creature with a slashing tongue armed with toothlike structures. It attaches to victims and ties itself into a knot, then pushes the knot snugly against the victim for leverage. When attacked, it releases huge quantities of transparent slime. This monster is a giant _____.
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Question 6
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As depicted in the figure below, what was the origin of the bones that became modified to form the vertebrate jaw?

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Question 7
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Two features of ray-finned fish not found in sharks are _____.
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Question 8
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The gill flap, or operculum, was an important adaptation for ray-finned fish because it helps with _____.
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Question 9
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The largest-bodied extant sharks and rays are _____.
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Question 10
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You catch a fish. Based on relative species diversity, this specimen is almost certainly a _____.
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Question 11
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The first vertebrates to live on land were most likely derived from _____.
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Question 12
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Which best describes current evidence and ideas about the evolution of the first tetrapods? The picture below represents an early tetrapod fossil.

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Question 13
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Most amphibians have two key characteristics that tie them to water or at least damp habitats. What are they?
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Question 14
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The development that freed vertebrates from water for reproduction and allowed them to radiate into diverse terrestrial environments was the _____.
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Question 15
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Extant nonbird reptiles are _____, whereas birds are different in that they are _____.
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Question 16
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Based on current fossil evidence, feathers first appeared in _____ and may have first functioned in _____.
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Question 17
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All mammals _____.
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Question 18
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The kangaroo is an example of a(n) _____ mammal.
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Question 19
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Eutherians include _____.
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Question 20
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There are three major groups of mammals, categorized on the basis of their _____.
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Question 21
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While sifting through debris from a fossil dig, you locate a partial jaw of a vertebrate. There are three intact teeth, including two relatively flat, grinding teeth and one sharp piercing tooth. What kind of organism left this fossil?
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Question 22
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The two major groups of anthropoids are _____.
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Question 23
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If you were to observe a monkey in a zoo, which characteristic would clearly indicate a New World origin for that monkey species?
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Question 24
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The earliest primates were most similar to modern _____.
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Question 25
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Humans and the slender loris share many traits that probably evolved in our early primate ancestors, including _____.
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Question 26
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Humans, apes, and monkeys are classified together as _____.
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Question 27
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Which lists the three major groups of primates in the proper order from earliest to most recent?
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Question 28
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Apes diverged from Old World monkeys about _____ years ago, and the ancestors to humans diverged from an ancestor shared with chimpanzees about _____ years ago.
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Question 29
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Anthropoids include _____ but not _____.
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Question 30
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The modern groups of apes include _____.
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Question 31
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Humans are most closely related to _____.
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Question 32
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Hominoids include _____ but not _____.
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Question 33
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Hominids include _____ but not _____.
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Question 34
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Scientists who study human evolution are called _____.
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Question 35
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Scientists have discovered about 20 species of extinct hominids, including several _____, a group that was relatively diverse 4-2 million years ago.
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Question 36
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Bipedalism is associated first with what hominid?
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Question 37
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Which hypothesis is supported by the characteristics of Lucy and other Australopithecus afarensis?
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Question 38
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Which trend is true of the evolution of humans from australopiths to Homo habilis to H. ergaster to H. erectus to H. sapiens?
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Question 39
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Which of the following correctly lists probable ancestors of modern humans from the oldest to the most recent?
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Question 40
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The first hominid known to make tools is _____.
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Question 41
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What was the earliest hominid to have an enlarged brain (relative to body size)?
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Question 42
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The first hominid fossils to be found outside of Africa were discovered in the former Soviet Republic of Georgia in 2000. They date to about _____ years ago.
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Question 43
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Evidence from genetic and fossil analysis indicates that Neanderthals _____.
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Question 44
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Which one of the following statements best fits the current evidence about the origin and spread of modern humans?
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Question 45
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What is the role of the human FOXP2 gene?
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Question 46
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Human skin color differences are apparently _____.
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Question 47
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Considering the adaptive nature of human skin color differences, what kinds of health problems might you expect in modern humans?
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Question 48
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Cane toads, oddly enough, produce a defensive compound that is abused by some Australians as a hallucinogenic drug. What other features make this toad a particularly damaging and unwelcome guest?
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Question 49
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In addition to cane toads, _____ introduced to Australia by humans have damaged native animals.
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