[Skip Breadcrumb Navigation]
[Skip Breadcrumb Navigation]
Chapter 31: Plant Structure, Reproduction, and Development
This activity contains 58 questions.
Which of the following would be the least useful in figuring out whether a plant is a monocot or a dicot?
size at maturity
number of flower parts
pattern of veins in leaves
number of seed leaves
arrangement of vascular tissue in the stem
Which of the following is a characteristic of dicots?
Dicots have two seed leaves.
Parts of flowers are found in multiples of seven.
Dicots lack a taproot.
Vascular bundles are arranged in a square.
Veins in leaves are usually parallel.
Monocot stems differ from dicot stems in that _____.
in cross section the vascular bundles of monocots have a complex arrangement, whereas in dicots the vascular bundles are arranged in a circle
in cross section the vascular bundles of monocots are arranged in a circle, whereas in dicots the vascular bundles have a complex arrangement
monocot stems have branched venation, whereas dicot stems have parallel venation
monocot stems have parallel venation, whereas dicot stems have branched venation
monocot stems have vascular bundles, whereas dicot stems do not have vascular bundles
In the hierarchical organization of plants, the leaf is a(n) _____.
In the hierarchy of biological organization, the shoot is a(n) _____.
A root hair is a(n) _____.
multicellular extension of the root epidermis
extension of the endodermis of roots
specialized root epidermal cell
series of cells that absorbs water from soil
extension of an individual cell and a structure that absorbs water from soil
Leaves occur at intervals along the plant stem. The region where a leaf is attached to the stem is the _____.
Most leaves consist of _____.
a blade and a petiole
a bud and a node
a node and an internode
a bud and a blade
an axillary bud and a terminal bud
The shoot system of a beavertail cactus consists of broad paddlelike structures covered with spines. The spines are modified _____, so the flat green paddles must be modified _____.
buds … leaves
buds … stems
leaves … stems
stems … roots
stems … leaves
_____ is an example of an edible petiole.
The plant tissue system most analogous to our circulatory system is the _____.
Guard cells _____.
control the rate at which a plant loses water
push water upward in a plant stem
protect the plant's roots from infection
control water and solute intake by roots
protect nitrogen-fixing bacteria in root nodules
In most leaves, chloroplast-containing cells are most closely compacted in the _____.
vein (vascular bundle)
Ground tissue is composed of undifferentiated cells with thin walls that are usually involved with storage. At the stage in a dicot plant's life when only primary growth has occurred, the inner portion of the ground tissue of a stem is called _____ and the outer portion is called _____.
cambium … cortex
endodermis … pith
cork … cortex
cambium … cork
pith … cortex
A cross section of part of a plant exposes epidermis, a thick cortex, and a central cylinder of xylem and phloem. This part is a _____.
Arrange the structures found in a typical leaf blade from inside to outside.
vein, mesophyll, epidermis
mesophyll, vein, epidermis
epidermis, mesophyll, vascular bundle
mesophyll, lower epidermis, upper epidermis, vein
vein, lower epidermis, upper epidermis, mesophyll
Most of the photosynthesis in a plant is carried out by _____ in the leaves.
Collenchyma cells can be recognized by _____.
their unevenly thickened cell walls
the presence of chloroplasts
lignin in the cell walls
the lack of nuclei at maturity
large central vacuoles
Monocots never have wood, but they may gain structural support from abundant _____.
Artichoke hearts are tender and tasty. The leaves are tasty too, but most of an artichoke leaf is fibrous and impossible to chew. The leaves must contain lots of _____.
Both tracheids and fibers _____.
have lignified cell walls
are found in the phloem
are part of the water transport system
have only secondary walls
have cytoplasm but no nucleus at maturity
Which of the following are dead at maturity?
parenchyma and sclerenchyma cells
collenchyma and sclerenchyma cells
sieve-tube members and companion cells
tracheids and companion cells
tracheids and vessel elements
Which vascular cells in plants must die before they become functional?
A root is forced down through the soil by _____.
cell division in the meristem
elongation of cells
cell division in the vascular cambium
differentiation (specialization) of root cells
pulling by root hairs
The primary growth of a plant adds _____ while secondary growth adds _____.
height … girth
branching … flowers
girth … height
branching … girth
height … branching
A region of cell division in a plant is called a _____.
The site of primary growth, growth that increases the length of a plant, occurs at _____.
vascular cambium and cork cambium
The protective layer that covers the apical meristem of a root and may aid in orientation is called the _____.
Plants grow by primary and secondary mechanisms. Choose the correct description of a mechanism and its result.
Primary and secondary growths are required to produce woody plants.
Primary growth increases the girth of the plant.
Stems with only primary growth are called woody plants.
Nonwoody plants have stems that exhibit only secondary growth.
Secondary growth, a feature of nonwoody plants, extends the length of the plant.
Cell division in the vascular cambium adds to the girth of a tree by adding new _____ on the inside of the cambium layer and _____ on the outside.
phloem … xylem
xylem and phloem … bark
pith … xylem and phloem
xylem … phloem
xylem … cortex
If you pound a nail into a tree 3 feet off the ground and come back to find it in 20 years, it will be _____.
3 feet off the ground and more deeply embedded in the tree
more than 3 feet off the ground and more deeply embedded in the tree
3 feet off the ground and the same depth in the tree
more than 3 feet off the ground and the same depth in the tree
less than 3 feet off the ground and the same depth in the tree
Cell division would be slowest in which of these tissues?
apical meristem of a root
apical meristem of a terminal bud
Secondary phloem in the root develops from the _____.
Which of the following is closest to the center of a woody stem?
A vandal killed a historic oak tree on the village green by girdling it with a chain saw. He cut through the bark and into the sapwood all the way around the tree. Why did the tree die?
The leaves could not get carbon dioxide.
Oxygen could not get to the roots.
The roots could not get food.
The leaves could not get food.
The roots could not absorb water.
In a large, old tree, which of the following provides the most physical support?
Annual rings in wood reflect the fact that in climates with a single growing season every year, the _____ divides actively when water is plentiful and temperatures are suitable for growth, and ceases to divide when water is scarce and the weather is cold.
In what order would you pass through tissues when moving from the pith to the epidermis in a plant possessing secondary vascular tissue?
primary phloem, primary xylem, secondary phloem, secondary xylem
primary xylem, secondary xylem, vascular cambium, secondary phloem, primary phloem
primary phloem, secondary phloem, secondary xylem, primary xylem
secondary xylem, primary xylem, primary phloem, secondary phloem
secondary phloem, primary phloem, primary xylem, secondary xylem
The chemical that strengthens wood cell walls is _____.
The female structures of angiosperms are called _____, and they produce _____.
sepals … ovules
carpels … ovules
anthers … sperm
anthers … pollen
anthers … ovules
Select the correct association.
petals, attraction of pollinators
sepals, containment of stems
stamens, development of female gametophytes
carpels, development of male gametophytes
stigma, contains the anther
The floral parts that take an active part in reproduction are _____.
stamens and carpels
stamens and sepals
carpels and petals
petals and sepals
carpels, stamens, and sepals
Pollen is _____ and produces _____.
diploid … spores
diploid … sperm nuclei
haploid … spores
haploid … sperm nuclei
diploid … a new sporophyte
All gametophytes are _____.
produced by mitosis
In the process of pollination, pollen grains are transferred from the _____ to the _____.
ovary … anther
stigma … ovary
anther … sepal
carpel … stigma
anther … stigma
Usually, the number of chromosomes in a flower's egg nucleus is _____ the number of chromosomes in a flower's pollen nucleus.
the same as
either greater than or less than
sometimes greater than, sometimes the same as, and sometimes less than
If a leaf cell in a potato plant contains 48 chromosomes, a sperm cell in a pollen grain would usually contain _____ chromosomes.
The male structures of angiosperms are called _____, and they produce _____.
stigmas … ovules
ovaries … ovules
anthers … ovaries
anthers … pollen
anthers … ovules
All of the following are true about angiosperm spores
the spores are haploid
the spores are either male or female
the spores are part of the asexual reproductive cycle
the spores are produced by meiosis
the spores are unicellular
In angiosperms, double fertilization produces _____.
two triploid cells
the embryo and the seed coat
the embryo and a triploid cell
a triploid cell and the seed coat
After fertilization, the _____ develops into a seed and the _____ develops into a fruit.
ovule … ovary
pollen grain … ovule
ovary … ovule
egg … ovule
egg … ovary
A seed is a mature _____.
What is endosperm?
male reproductive cells in plants
stored food in a seed
cells that make up the bulk of a pollen grain
the fleshy part of a fruit
In angiosperms, the seed coat develops from the _____.
Flowers bear seeds in protective chambers called _____.
Why do seeds need water to germinate?
Water provides energy.
Following hydration, enzymes break down stored food and make it available for the embryo.
Water activates the chlorophyll molecules so that photosynthesis can begin.
Water dissolves the minerals in the soil so that they become available to the seed.
Because water has a neutral pH, it balances the soil pH and makes it favorable for seed germination.
Plants growing in harsh environments such as deserts, sand dunes, and arctic tundra often reproduce vegetatively. This is because _____.
there are few animals available to pollinate them
they are members of plant families that only reproduce asexually
fruits would freeze or dry out in these environments
vegetative reproduction is not as risky as making seeds
seeds would be eaten by hungry animals in these environments
Many plants have very long life spans because they have retained _____.
the ability to recycle water
the ability to produce gametes
the ability to photosynthesize
the ability to reproduce asexually
The Clear Answers feature requires scripting to function. Your browser either does not support scripting or you have turned scripting off. So, the Clear Answers feature will not work. Note that you do not need to use the Clear Answers feature in order to use this site. You can change your answers for each question individually.
Copyright © 1995 - 2011
. All rights reserved. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of
[Return to the Top of this Page]