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Chapter 32: Plant Nutrition and Transport
This activity contains 45 questions.
Mineral nutrients _____.
are not essential to plant growth, since all a plant needs is water and CO
contribute little to the weight of a plant
enter plants via the stomata
are organic nutrients
A root hair is _____.
a multicellular extension of the root epidermis
an extension of the endodermis of roots
a specialized root epidermal cell
a structure that absorbs water from soil
an extension of an individual cell that absorbs water from soil
The cytoplasmic continuum connecting neighboring cells is the _____ route of water and solute transport from root hairs to xylem.
Cells whose function it is to regulate the flow of water into the vascular tissue of a plant are _____.
without a plasma membrane
The continuum of spaces between cell walls of neighboring cells is the _____ route of water and solute transport from root hairs to xylem.
A botanist discovered a mutant plant that is unable to produce the material that forms the Casparian strip. This plant is _____.
unable to fix nitrogen
unable to transport water or solutes to the leaves
able to exert greater root pressure than normal plants
unable to control the amounts of water and solutes it absorbs
unable to lose water by transpiration
The Casparian strip is _____.
a waterproof "gasket" around the cells of the root's endodermis
a band of bark and phloem removed around the trunk of a tree, resulting in the tree's death
a region across central Canada marking the northernmost presence of deciduous trees
a vertical band of xylem cells in a woody stem
An undergraduate student had a terrarium on her windowsill containing various houseplants. She wondered why the glass was often fogged with water droplets. The undergraduate's friend, a graduate student who had taken a biology class, tried to explain that it was because of _____.
Root pressure is attributable to _____.
the accumulation of ions in the xylem
the accumulation of water and potassium ions in guard cells
the active transport of water into the xylem
the pumping of minerals out of the xylem
Which of the following describes the loss of water through the stomata in a plant's leaves?
The rate of transpiration is expected to be greatest on a _____ day.
cool and moist
warm and moist
cool and dry
warm and dry
windy and cool
What is the main source of energy that moves water upward in the trunk of a tree?
muscle-like contraction of xylem cells
evaporation of water by the sun
pressure exerted by root cells
breakdown and release of energy of sugar molecules
osmotic changes caused by alterations in salt content
What keeps the force of gravity from overcoming transpirational pull?
upward pressure from the roots
high water pressure in the leaves
the Casparian strip blocking water molecules from moving out
movement of water toward a sugar sink
cohesion and adhesion of water molecules
Normally when an aphid feeds by puncturing plant tissues, it does not have to suck the sap out. An inexperienced aphid, however, accidentally inserted its feeding tube in the wrong place and found the fluid in its gut being sucked out through the feeding tube. This aphid must have punctured _____.
the Casparian strip
a root nodule
a xylem cell
a phloem tube
During winter, tree sap can sometimes freeze and "cavitation" (the formation of an air pocket) may occur. Which of the following mechanisms of sap transport would you expect to be most immediately affected by cavitation?
the movement of water between intracellular compartments
pressure flow (mass flow)
cohesion and transpiration
A student is performing a chemical analysis of xylem sap. This student should not expect to find much _____.
Guard cells _____.
can regulate the rate of transpiration
push water upward in a plant stem
protect the plant's roots from infection
control water and solute intake by roots
protect nitrogen-fixing bacteria in root nodules
Which of the following would trigger the opening of stomata in plants living in temperate climates?
loss of potassium by guard cells
swelling of guard cells due to osmosis
the plant losing water too fast
Stomata open during the day in response to _____.
guard cells losing K
the uptake of K
by guard cells
the production of abscisic acid
As turgor pressure increases in guard cells, the transpiration rate would be expected to _____.
remain the same
perhaps decrease, or perhaps remain the same, but never increase
increase the rate of mineral loss through the stomata
What contributes directly to the turgor of guard cells?
In general, stomata are _____ during the day and _____ at night.
open … closed
closed … open
open … open
closed … closed
There is no diurnal pattern.
Stomata can be opened or closed by guard cells. Closing the stomata at night _____.
prevents water loss at a time when photosynthesis is not occurring
prevents water loss but prevents photosynthesis as well
increases carbon dioxide uptake by the leaf
harms the plant because carbon dioxide is necessary for photosynthesis
prevents water loss by preventing photosynthesis
In an apple tree that is producing sugars, sugar might flow from _____ to _____.
a developing apple … a leaf
the trunk … a leaf
a growing root … a growing shoot tip
a leaf … a developing apple
a growing shoot tip … the trunk
Which aspect of solute transport in the xylem of a plant is most like that of solute transport in the phloem?
the upward movement from roots to leaves
the development of root pressure
movement in conduits composed of nonliving cell walls
the development of tension on water to pull it and dissolved solutes through the conduits
the dependence of the process on transpiration from the leaves
When referring to phloem transport, the "sink" in roots is created by _____.
the active transport of mineral ions into xylem cells
the sugar source
the absorption of water from the soil through epidermal cells
active transport of sugars from phloem to root cells
the phloem tube
A _____ is a sugar source.
Which of the following substances does the plant obtain from the air?
When you add "plant food" to your potted geraniums, you are actually providing the plant with _____.
vitamins and amino acids
Terrestrial plants obtain _____ from the atmosphere.
both carbon and oxygen
Professor Scheinman claims to have discovered a new macronutrient required for plant growth. Most of the professor's colleagues are skeptical of this claim. Why might they consider it unlikely?
All the nutrients required for plant growth have already been found.
It is very difficult to prove that a plant needs a certain nutrient.
Plants need thousands of nutrients; a new one is not significant.
Any nutrient needed in large amounts has probably been found already.
Professor Scheinman's colleagues are jealous and want to claim credit for the discovery.
Soil could be deficient in any of the following nutrients. If you had to supply one of them, which would be needed in the smallest amount?
If a plant's leaves are yellowing, it may be that the plant is deficient in the elements needed to make chlorophyll, which include _____.
Fertilizers are usually enriched in _____.
iron, manganese, and zinc
calcium and boron
nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium
molybdenum, copper, and magnesium
all essential nutrients
Soil can easily become deficient in _____, because these ions are negatively charged and do not stick to negatively charged soil particles.
A major long-term problem that occurs when irrigation water is flooded onto a field is the _____.
drowning of crop plants
accumulation of salts in the soil
erosion of fine soil particles
encroachment of water-consuming weeds
excessive cooling of the soil
Organic farming means that _____.
no chemicals are used
the farmer grows food and processes it according to strict guidelines established and regulated by the USDA
pesticides are sprayed on crops
the produce is better for you than produce grown by traditional commercial methods
foods are irradiated to kill bacteria
One of the major problems encountered when growing genetically modified (GM) crops is _____.
the lack of increased productivity
their extraordinary demand for nitrogen
instability of the modified genes
that many are poisonous
that GM crops require excessive amounts of water
The most abundant gas in our atmosphere cannot be used by plants directly in its atmospheric form and is, therefore, captured by certain bacteria that live symbiotically in their roots. What is this gas?
Nitrogen fixation is _____.
using nitrogen to build molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids
converting nitrogen from the air to a form usable by plants
recycling nitrogen from organic matter in the soil
from the soil
an unhealthy interest in nitrogen
Mycorrhizae are _____.
nutrients required by plants in relatively small amounts
plants such as mistletoe that parasitize other plants
medium-sized soil particles
cells that control the evaporation of water from leaves
associations of roots with beneficial fungi
Legumes (members of the pea family) have roots with swellings called nodules that _____.
contain nitrogen-fixing bacteria
form fungal hyphae
provide a steady supply of sugar to the host plant
produce antibiotics that protect the plant from soil bacteria
increase the surface area for water uptake
The location on a root that houses nitrogen-fixing bacteria is called _____.
a root nodule
a root graft
a prop root
By trapping insects, carnivorous plants obtain _____, which they need _____.
water … because they live in dry soil
nitrogen … to make sugar
phosphorus … to make protein
sugars … because they cannot make enough in photosynthesis
nitrogen … to make protein
The sundew plant has to digest insects because _____.
it obtains nitrogen from their bodies that it cannot get from the soil
it has lost the ability to perform photosynthesis
it lives in a dry environment and needs the moisture in its body
it needs to get rid of insects that accidentally get stuck in its hairs
its flowers are fertilized by pollen in its digestive tract
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