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Chapter 14: The Origin of Species
This activity contains 10 questions.
Charles Darwin's main focus was on the gradual process of adaptation
populations. This form of change _____.
explains all important forms of evolutionary change
is the main means by which new species arise
cannot account for increases in species diversity over time
occurs mainly in small, isolated populations
leads to the formation of major new branches on the tree of life
Two animals are considered members of different biological species if they _____.
are male and female, but cannot interbreed
live in different habitats
are members of different populations
are geographically isolated
Often, the morphological species concept is used to define and describe species. Why?
If two organisms look alike, they must be the same biological species.
The morphological species concept defines a species in terms of its reproductive behavior, which is the most direct way to identify biological species.
If two organisms look different, they must be different biological species.
This is the most convenient way of identifying species, and it is one of the few ways to identify fossil or asexual species.
Physical traits clearly define unique branches on the tree of life.
The following options are all reproductive barriers. Which one is an example of a prezygotic barrier in which the two different species
One bird species lives in wetlands, the other in dry forests; hence, they do not encounter each other.
Hybrid mules produced by mating donkeys and horses are sterile.
Two dragonfly species regularly mate, but their gametes are incompatible.
Two crayfish species cannot interbreed because their genitalia do not engage properly with each other.
Two daisy species produce hybrid offspring, but the hybrids produce very few seeds.
Which of these is an example of temporal isolation?
The average weight of the individuals in one species is 100 pounds; in the other species the average is 640 pounds.
One species is found only in North America, the other only in Europe.
One species can't dance; the other does not respond to species that can't dance.
One species is diurnal (day active) and mates at high noon; the other is nocturnal (night active) and mates at midnight.
The sperm and eggs of two species have different surface proteins, and cross-fertilization cannot occur.
What is the first step in allopatric speciation?
formation of a reproductive barrier
Sympatric speciation is _____.
the appearance of a new species in the same area as the parent population
most common in animals
initiated by the appearance of a geographic barrier
the rapid emergence of many ecologically diverse species from a single ancestor
especially important in the evolution of island species
_____ generated many key crop plant species in the past, and continues to be an important method for plant geneticists today.
Sympatric speciation by polyploidy
The evolution of numerous ecologically diverse species in a relatively short time period, such as Darwin's finches, from a single ancestor is called _____.
According to the _____ model, evolution occurs in spurts: Species evolve relatively rapidly and then remain unchanged for long periods.
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