Chapter 12: DNA Technology
 
Objectives
 
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Biology and Society: Hunting for Genes
1. Define DNA technology and describe advances using these methods.

2. List four ways that DNA technology plays a significant role in our lives.

Recombinant DNA Technology
3. Describe the advances made over the last three decades using DNA technology.

4. Explain how genetic engineering is used to produce humulin, human growth hormone, vaccines, crops, and "pharm" animals.

5. Explain how recombinant DNA techniques are used to mass produce a protein from an isolated gene.

6. Describe the process of cloning genes using plasmids.

7. Explain how restriction enzymes and DNA ligase are used to create recombinant DNA.

8. Explain how the “shotgun” approach produces a genomic library.

DNA Fingerprinting and Forensic Science
9. Describe the many ways that DNA fingerprinting can be used.

10. Explain how the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, and gel electrophoresis are used in the process of DNA fingerprinting.

Genomics
11. Describe the goals of the Human Genome Project. Explain why our genome presents a major challenge.

12. Describe the other types of organisms that have been the subject of recent sequencing efforts. Explain why these particular organisms have been examined.

13. Explain how comparative genomics can even be used to investigate acts of bioterrorism and track the spread of disease.

14. Describe the three stages used by the public consortium to map the human genome. Compare this process to the methods used by Celera Genomics.

Human Gene Therapy
15. Describe the steps used in one approach to human gene therapy. Describe the application and effectiveness of this method to patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID).

Safety and Ethical Issues
16. Describe the potential benefits, risks, and concerns of producing genetically modified microbes, crops, farm animals, and humans.

17. Describe the concerns for the abuse of genetic information and technology as it relates to human society.

Evolution Connection: Genomes Hold Clues to Evolution
18. Explain how DNA sequencing has affected our understanding of the evolutionary connections of life.





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