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06: Cellular Respiration: Obtaining Energy from Food
This activity contains 25 questions.
fast-twitch muscle cells have a greater blood supply
of the major differences in the number of fast-twitch versus slow-twitch fibers
one type is affected more by anabolic steroids than the other
both break down glucose to make ATP
they use different processes for making ATP
_____ is a chemical process that uses light energy from the sun to build organic molecules.
Which of the following is an autotroph?
Because plants are involved in photosynthesis, they are called _____.
The chemical ingredients needed for photosynthesis are _____ and _____.
water ... glucose
oxygen gas ... water
carbon dioxide ... water
carbon dioxide ... oxygen
carbon dioxide ... sunlight
_____ is used as food and _____ is produced as a waste in the overall process of cellular respiration.
Water ... ATP
Carbon dioxide ... water
Oxygen ... glucose
ATP ... oxygen
Glucose ... carbon dioxide
The main function of cellular respiration is __________.
breaking down ATP, so that ADP and P can be reused
making ATP to power cell activities
producing cell structures from chemical building blocks
breaking down toxic molecules
Aerobic metabolism always requires _____.
exclusion of oxygen
Which of the following describes cellular respiration?
It splits glucose to form four molecules of pyruvic acid.
It begins the breakdown of pyruvic acid.
It generates high-energy compounds.
Redox reactions are involved in cellular respiration.
It produces a small amount of ATP.
An important end product of cellular respiration is _____.
Which of the following is oxidized during cellular respiration?
In redox reactions, electrons need to be shuttled from one molecule to another. Which of the following statements is true?
NADH is suited to pick up electrons.
Water can be oxidized for the electrons it contains.
Electrons are added to NAD
, which then carries the electrons to another electron acceptor.
ATP synthase removes hydrogen.
The loss of electrons is called reduction.
Where in a cell does glycolysis occur?
The net gain of ATP for each glucose molecule that enters glycolysis, in the absence of oxygen, is approximately __________.
none, because all the electrons are in NADH
none, because all the electrons are associated with lactic acid
Which of the following "escorts" acetic acid produced from pyruvic acid into the first reaction of the citric acid cycle?
A glucose molecule is completely broken down in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, but these two processes yield only a few ATPs. Where is the rest of the energy that the cell can obtain from the glucose molecule?
lost as heat
in FAD and NAD
in NADH and FADH
in the oxygen used in the electron transport chain
in the carbon dioxide molecules released by the processes
In eukaryotes, the electron transport chain is a series of electron carrier molecules embedded in which organelle?
the Golgi apparatus
the rough endoplasmic reticulum
the smooth endoplasmic reticulum
the plasma membrane
The electrons removed from glucose in cellular respiration end up in _____.
Most of the ATP produced during cellular respiration occurs __________.
from activity of the ATP synthase machine
from the association of CoA with acetic acid
in the citric acid cycle
from the reduction of glucose
Organisms that are poisoned by oxygen and must live in very low oxygen regions are called _____.
Chemical reactions that require oxygen are called _____ while those that do not require oxygen are considered _____.
consumers ... producers
aerobic ... anaerobic
fermenters ... aerobic
producers ... consumers
anaerobic ... aerobic
What is the name of the process in which pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid?
Which of the following would challenge A. V. Hill's conclusions about the effect of lactic acid on muscle fatigue?
Hill's reputation and scientific stature were highly regarded.
The muscles used in his research were electrically stimulated.
The effect Hill demonstrated does not occur at human body temperature.
Hill's field was in exercise physiology.
Muscle fatigue is not common among athletes.
Which of the following is a group of organisms that thrive in an anaerobic environment?
Which one of the following is considered the oldest mechanism to generate ATP?
the citric acid cycle
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