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This activity contains 53 questions.

Question 1
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If an insecticide killed all of the insect pests in a particular population, could insecticide resistance evolve in this insect population?
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Question 2
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Which of the following is a true statement about Charles Darwin?
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Question 3
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At the time Darwin voyaged on HMSBeagle, the popularly accepted theory in Europe that explained the origin of Earth's plants and animals held that the various species __________.
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Question 4
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Which one of the following statements best reflects Darwin's view of human evolution?
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Question 5
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Fossils are most likely to be found in __________.
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Question 6
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Why is it that isolated islands, such as the Hawaiian islands, often have many endemic organisms (found nowhere else)?
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Question 7
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An important challenge to traditional (pre-1860) ideas about species was the observation that seemingly dissimilar organisms, such as hummingbirds, humans, and whales, have similar skeletal structures. This most directly suggested to biologists that __________.
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Question 8
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Animals that possess homologous structures probably __________.
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Question 9
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The bones of the wings of bats are homologous to the bones of the _____ of their ancestors.
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Question 10
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The approach to evolution that involves the study of similar structures that appear during the development of different organisms is known as the study of _____.
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Question 11
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All known organisms transcribe genetic information to protein molecules via the same genetic code. This finding strongly supports the hypothesis that __________.
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Question 12
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Evidence from molecular biology supports the theory of evolution by showing that __________.
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Question 13
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Biologists have noticed that most human beings enjoy sex. How would they explain this in evolutionary terms?
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Question 14
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Assume there are two varieties of mice, brown and gray, living on an island. They are the prey for the hawks on the island. They are distributed through rocky areas in the north part of the island and across the fields in the south part. Which of the following is predicted by natural selection?
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Question 15
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"Differential success in reproduction" is just another way of saying _____.
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Question 16
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Which one of the following statements most closely agrees with the theory of evolution by means of natural selection, as put forth by Darwin?
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Question 17
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"Natural selection" and "evolution" are two terms that are sometimes confused, even by freshman biology students. What is the relation between natural selection and evolution?
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Question 18
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In natural selection, _____ determines which phenotypes are successful.
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Question 19
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Which of the following is a requirement for natural selection?
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Question 20
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If members of a population have traits that are both heritable and variable among individuals, then __________.
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Question 21
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When they were first sold, aerosol insecticides were highly effective in killing flies and mosquitoes. Today, some 30 years later, a much smaller proportion of these insects die when sprayed. The reason fewer insects are being killed is that __________.
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Question 22
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Scientists have warned doctors of the danger of their increasing use of antibiotics (for instance, penicillin) for treating minor illnesses. They are concerned because _____.
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Question 23
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One conclusion that can be drawn from predator–prey studies such as the shrike and its prey, the flat-tailed horned lizard, is _______________.
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Question 24
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Similar to the branching pattern of a tree, the fork of an evolutionary tree indicates a(n) _____ of all species emanating from that fork.
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Question 25
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According to the modern synthesis of evolutionary theory, which of the following is true?
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Question 26
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A population is __________.
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Question 27
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The smallest unit that can evolve is a _____.
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Question 28
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What is the term for a change in the relative frequencies of alleles in a population over several generations?
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Question 29
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Members of the same population __________.
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Question 30
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The major weakness of Darwin's theory (as it existed in 1859) was that it could not explain __________.
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Question 31
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The original source of all genetic variation is _____.
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Question 32
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Bacteria can adapt to changes in the environment by means of mutation alone because __________.
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Question 33
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Each of us is part of the ongoing evolution of the human species. Which of the following occurrences would have the greatest impact on the future biological evolution of the human population?
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Question 34
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Critics like to point out that the theory of evolution is flawed because it is based on random changes: mutations. They say that a random change in an organism (or a car or a TV set) is likely to harm it, not make it function better. What logical statement refutes these critics?
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Question 35
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In the Hardy-Weinberg formula, p2 represents _____.
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Question 36
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In the Hardy-Weinberg theorem, 1 represents __________.
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Question 37
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Suppose that, with regard to a particular genetic locus with two alleles, A and a, we know that 60% of the alleles in the gene pool of a particular large population are A. Suppose further that we observe this population for five generations, during which we know that no mutation, selection, or migration has occurred. After this period, the frequency of the a allele is expected to be _____.
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Question 38
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Approximately one out of every 2,500 Caucasians in the United States is born with the recessive disease cystic fibrosis. According to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium equation, approximately how many people are carriers?
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Question 39
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If a population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and remains in equilibrium, which of the following will be true?
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Question 40
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If an earthquake hit a small island so that all but a tiny group of lizards were eliminated and the survivors spread out over the island and the population increased, this would be an instance of _____.
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Question 41
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The evolutionary effects of genetic drift are greatest when __________.
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Question 42
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The severe reduction in genetic variability seen in the endangered cheetah is probably attributable to __________.
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Question 43
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Which of the following is the best example of gene flow?
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Question 44
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A geneticist studied a grass population growing in an area of erratic rainfall and found that plants with alleles for curled leaves reproduced better in dry years, and plants with alleles for flat leaves reproduced better in wet years. This situation would __________.
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Question 45
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Which of the following statements best describes how the process of natural selection works to change allele frequencies?
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Question 46
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In a population of bears, which is most likely to be considered to have the greatest Darwinian fitness?
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Question 47
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Birds with average-sized wings survived a severe storm more successfully than other birds in the same population with longer or shorter wings. This illustrates _____.
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Question 48
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A population of squirrels is preyed on by small hawks. The smaller squirrels can escape into burrows. The larger squirrels can fight off the hawks. After several generations, the squirrels in the area tend to be very small or very large. What process is responsible for this outcome?
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Question 49
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In a large population of randomly breeding individuals, the frequency of a recessive allele is initially 0.3. There is no migration and no selection. Humans enter this ecosystem and selectively hunt individuals showing the dominant trait. When the gene frequency is reexamined at the end of the year, __________.
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Question 50
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Antibiotic resistance in bacteria is an example of which of the following?
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Question 51
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Stabilizing selection __________.
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Question 52
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Sexual selection is a form of _____.
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Question 53
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Tay Sachs disease, which is lethal, results from having the homozygous recessive condition of the responsible gene. Which one of the following statements is true?
End of Question 53

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