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13: How Populations Evolve
This activity contains 29 questions.
the development of pesticide-resistant insects
the presence of long generation times in organisms
the occurrence of many different breeds of dogs
the genetic differences among the various races on Earth
the process of crossing over in meiosis
A process in which organisms with certain inherited characteristics are more likely to survive and reproduce than are individuals with other characteristics is called _____.
descent with modification
Which mechanism for evolution was proposed by Lamarck?
evolution by the impact of crossing over
evolution by punctuated equilibrium
evolution by inheritance of acquired characteristics
evolution by natural selection
evolution by accumulation of mutations
Which of the following statements about early ideas of evolution is true?
Gregor Mendel proposed the idea of natural selection.
Charles Darwin came up with the idea that species evolve.
Aristotle thought that species evolved.
Lamarck suggested the idea of natural selection.
Darwin sailed around Earth over a five-year period and gathered information that greatly influenced his thinking about evolution.
The title of Darwin's book in which he presented evidence that each living species descended from a succession of ancestral species is __________.
Principles of Geology
Essential Biology with Physiology
The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection
What do we call scientists who study fossils?
Which of the following is the study of the geographic distribution of species on Earth?
The study of comparative anatomy __________.
is based on the genetic language of DNA and RNA
is dependent on the geographic distribution of species
provides information about the evolutionary history of species
looks at early stages of development in different animal species
supports the idea of fixed species
A challenge to traditional (pre-1860) ideas about species came from embryology, where it was discovered that __________.
mutations have a far more dramatic effect on embryos than on adult organisms
the embryological development of advanced plants and advanced animals is identical
embryos of dissimilar organisms, such as sharks and humans, resemble each other
the more advanced the animal, the more slowly it develops
all animals develop similar embryonic gills
Which of the following is a true statement?
The genetic language of DNA and RNA provides evidence that contradicts evolution of finches and other birds.
Molecular biologists have suggested that bacteria are more closely related to eukaryotes than are members of the domain Archaea.
Adaptation to the environment is not related to the origin of new species.
Molecular biologists study the early stages of development in different animal species.
Species with nucleotide sequences that match closely share a common ancestor.
Which one of the following was an assumption of Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection?
Populations produce more offspring than their environment can support.
Organisms are similar in many ways.
Organisms cooperate for limited resources.
Earth is very young.
Traits are inherited as discrete particles.
Natural selection __________.
and evolution cannot be directly observed
is more of a creative process than an editing process
is independent of time or place
relies on populations of all species to produce fewer offspring than the environment can support
relies on variation among individuals in a population
There is a group of small fish living in a lake with a sandy bottom. Most of the fish are light brown, but about 10% are mottled. These fish are normally prey for large birds that live on the shore. A construction company dumps a load of gravel in the bottom of the lake, giving it a mottled appearance. Which of these statements presents the most accurate prediction?
The proportion of mottled fish will increase over time.
In two generations, all the fish will be mottled.
There is no way to guess the result.
As the mottled fish are eaten, more will be produced to fill the gap.
The ratios will not change.
Which of the following is an example of natural selection that has been seen in our lifetime?
the domain Archaea
insects that cause diseases such as malaria
feeding habits of finches
some diseases, such as malaria
the evolution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria
Evolutionary biologists studying the evolution of lizard horn length found __________.
an evolutionary tree useful in their work
that the tools of the molecular biologist could not be applied in a study of lizard horn length
no particular advantage to longer horns
that lizard horn length evolved as a defense mechanism against predators
lizards shedding their horns
If we study evolution of life as if it were analogous to a tree, a fork in our evolutionary tree would represent __________.
an unknown pattern of evolutionary descent
a gene pool
an ancestor common to all branches extending from that fork
distinctions between plants and animals
According to current evolutionary theory, which of the following is true?
When studying evolution at the population level, biologists are interested in studying the genes of a single individual, not the gene pool.
Only certain animal species are sexual.
Populations are the units of evolution.
Evolution is independent of genetics.
Segregation and independent assortment explain evolution of the individual and not the species.
The relationship of the genome to an organism is the same as that of the _____ to a population.
Which of the following statements is true?
There are eight major variations (types) in human blood.
Environmentally induced traits are passed on to offspring.
Only one allele for a particular trait is considered for inclusion into the gene pool.
Many variable traits in a population result from the combined effect of several genes.
Environmental influences have nothing to do with variation in phenotype within a population.
According to the Hardy-Weinberg formula, the frequencies of alleles in a population will remain constant if _____ is the only process that affects the gene pool.
Carriers (a person that carries the allele for certain inherited diseases) are represented in the Hardy-Weinberg formula by __________.
frequency of homozygous dominants plus frequency of heterozygotes plus frequency of homozygous recessives = 1
Which of the following defines Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?
the smallest scale of evolution
the frequency of the dominant allele
a nonevolving population in genetic equilibrium
generation-to-generation change in a population's frequencies of alleles
The population of American bison used to number in the millions of animals. Hunting and other problems greatly decreased the number of bison to about 1,000 animals. But today, the numbers are recovering to estimates of more than 200,000 animals. This crash in the population of bison and recent recovery is a good example of _____.
the founder effect
the bottleneck effect
Imagine that a new population of humans is established on a new planet from ten randomly selected people in your biology class. Over thousands of years, the descendants of those ten people reproduce and prosper, but do not reflect well the diversity of humans on Earth. This change in the diversity of people on the new planet is an example of _____.
the bottleneck effect
the founder effect
A significant consequence of gene flow is that it __________.
depends on isolated populations
changes the gene pool of a population due to chance
may increase the frequency of certain inherited disorders in humans
tends to reduce differences between populations
may reduce the overall genetic variability in a population
In evolutionary terms, an organism's Darwinian fitness is measured by its __________.
contribution to the gene pool of the next generation
stability in the face of environmental change
Blue poppies native to China are grown at a plant-breeding center in California, where those with the thickest leaves survive and reproduce best in the drier climate. This evolutionary adaptation of the poppies to their new environment is due to _____.
What is the term used to define a secondary sexual characteristic in males, such as manes on lions or colorful plumage on peacocks?
Sickle-cell disease is caused by __________.
the dominant allele for the disorder
a heterozygous situation
a recessive allele
the parasite that also causes malaria
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