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15: The Evolution of Microbial Life
This activity contains 22 questions.
to clean up toxic waste
to encourage the growth of weeds
to limit the growth of coral reefs
to make a pathogenic microorganism to use in bioterrorism
to infect humans and turn on genes that initiate cancer
Earth probably formed about __________ years ago, and the oldest known living organisms date to __________ years ago.
4.6 billion years ago; 3.5 billion years ago
6,000 years ago; 6,000 years ago
3.5 billion years ago;...2.1 billion years ago
10 billion years ago; 4.5 billion years ago
3.9 million years ago; 2.0 billion years ago
Which of the following are the two main branches of prokaryotic evolution?
autotrophs and heterotrophs
plants and animals
fungi and protists
bacteria and archaea
viruses and bacteria
Spontaneous generation __________.
occurs when maggots appear in rotting meat
is the belief that living organisms arise from nonliving matter
states that all life comes from existing life
is also called biogenesis
was proven by Louis Pasteur
There were four hypothetical stages in the formation of life; abiotic synthesis of organic monomers was _____.
a combination of stages 2 and 3
Experiments in which electricity was discharged into a vessel containing hydrogen gas, water vapor, methane, and ammonia were conducted by _____.
Meselson and Stahl
Watson and Crick
Miller and Urey
In cells, RNAs that can act like enzymes are called _____.
Early pre-cells developed an important prerequisite for life, which was self-replicating _____.
A major difference between eukaryotes and prokaryotes is that __________.
some eukaryotic cells live in areas of temperature extremes whereas prokaryotic cells cannot
eukaryotes' survival is limited to a few environments whereas prokaryotes have adapted to a variety of environments
eukaryotic cells contain the genetic material DNA whereas prokaryotic cells contain RNA
prokaryotic cell structure is much more complex than eukaryotic cell structure
eukaryotes were the first cell type on Earth
bacteria, which live in human intestines, are shaped like tiny, straight sausages. They are _____.
can withstand heat, dryness, and toxic chemicals that would kill most other bacteria. This indicates that it is probably able to form a protective structure called _____.
Bacteria that live around deep-sea hot-water vents obtain energy by oxidizing inorganic hydrogen sulfide belched out by the vents. They use this energy to build organic molecules from carbon obtained from the carbon dioxide in the seawater. These bacteria are _____.
All living organisms can be divided into four nutritional classes based on how they obtain which two resources?
oxygen and nitrogen
nitrogen and carbon
carbon and energy
hydrogen and energy
carbon and oxygen
What is the name of poisonous proteins produced and secreted by some bacterial cells?
The use of harmful microorganisms as weapons is called _____.
The endosymbiotic theory states that __________; one piece of evidence supporting this theory is the fact that __________.
over time, parasites evolve to resemble their hosts; the DNA of human parasites contains segments of human DNA
the genomes of complex animals came in part from the genomes of invading pathogens; the human genome contains the complete genomes of 120 viruses and 10 bacteria
mitochondria and chloroplasts originated as ingested prokaryotes; mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA
the first hereditary material was RNA; mitochondria and chloroplasts have heredity based on RNA
two organisms live in close association; the two participating individuals are two different species
Which of these human diseases does an apicomplexan protozoan cause?
While peering through the microscope, a classmate of yours said, "I know that this thing is supposed to be a ciliate, a flagellate, or an amoeba, but I can't figure out which." You replied, "That's easy, __________."
look at its chloroplasts
watch how it moves
all you have to do is see whether it has a nucleus
see how big it is
watch and see what it eats
A sign on the beach states, "Beach Closed. Red Tide." The organisms interfering with your use of this beach are _____.
species of red algae
Which of the following organisms are characterized by having glassy cell walls that contain silica?
Which of the following groups of protists is classified into these three groups: brown algae, green algae, and red algae?
The evolutionary link between unicellular and multicellular life was probably __________.
development of a specialized method of gas exchange
development of colonial forms where unicellular protists stuck together
development of a specialized feeding mechanism
development of a specialized method of protection
development of a specialized method of waste disposal
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