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17: The Evolution of Animals
This activity contains 24 questions.
through years of evolution as natural selection shaped animal adaptations to Earth's environments
about 12,000 to 18,000 years ago
from island-bound populations of individuals
after the process of photosynthesis became widespread
before the Cambrian explosion
All animals can trace their lineage to a common ancestor that lived in the _____.
How are animals different from fungi?
Animals are heterotrophic, and fungi are autotrophic.
Animals are autotrophic, and fungi are heterotrophic.
All animals are multicellular, whereas all fungi are unicellular.
Animals lack chloroplasts, and fungi have chloroplasts.
Animals obtain food by ingestion, and fungi obtain food by absorption.
The _____ explosion occurred approximately 545 million years ago.
One body plan, called bilateral symmetry, represents a major branch point in animal evolution and can be described as __________.
a mechanism for detecting environmental stimuli
an animal that is identical all around a central axis
resembling a pail
a body plan with only one way to split it into two equal halvesright down the midline
being a stationary individual
Which of the following is an invertebrate?
A characteristic of cnidarians is __________.
suckers that allow them to feed on human blood
tentacles with stinging cells
a soft shell
the 25,000 known species, with perhaps ten times this number actually currently existing
Members of the phylum Mollusca __________.
include aquatic worms and leeches
have segmented bodies and paired, jointed appendages
are soft-bodied and usually covered by a shell
Which phylum includes the simplest animals with bilateral symmetry?
Annelids, such as the leeches, __________, a characteristic shared by all other bilateral animals except flatworms.
live in damp soil, the sea, and most freshwater habitats
like the earthworm have a main heart and five pairs of accessory hearts
exhibit a complete digestive tract
are segmented externally and internally
are notorious for their bloodsucking habits
Which of the following are called nematodes?
While on a biological expedition, you discover a new species with the following characteristics: has an exoskeleton, exhibits bilateral symmetry, and has jointed appendages. What phylum does this newly discovered organism belong to?
Sea stars and sand dollars belong to a group of spiny marine animals called _____.
Which phylum includes animals that have the following characteristics: a dorsal, hollow nerve cord; a notochord; pharyngeal gill slits; and a post-anal tail?
Imagine that you are a paleontologist (a scientist who studies fossils of ancient life-forms). In a recent dig, you unearthed the following bones: jaw bone, vertebral column, and femur (thigh bone). Which phylum does the organism you unearthed belong to?
What is unique about agnathans, represented today by lampreys?
They have a dorsal, hollow nerve cord.
They are jawless vertebrates.
They have a notochord.
They are cartilaginous fish.
They have vertebral columns.
A diagnostic feature specific to cartilaginous fishes is __________.
a skeleton of cartilage
a streamlined, torpedo-shaped body
a swim bladder
Most members of which class of chordates exhibit a mixture of aquatic and terrestrial adaptations?
Which of the following is considered to be a reptile?
What are the two key features of members of the class Mammalia?
hair and a vertebral column
hair and giving live birth
hair and a notochord
hair and being endothermic
hair and mammary glands
Which of these is an anthropoid?
Which of these human features evolved most recently?
increased body hair
spinal column of bone
an opposable thumb
Extended care of offspring allowed humans to evolve _____.
a large brain
a long life span
Which of the following would you consider the most useful information for studies of evolution in humans?
Clone a human from ancient DNA
Study the extent of humanity's range out of Africa over time.
Conduct a genetic investigation and study particular genes where possible.
Study the bones of early humans to determine body shapes.
Compare the environments in Africa, Asia, Europe, and Australia for clues about human evolution.
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