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26: Reproduction and Development
This activity contains 51 questions.
increase the quantity of sperm that make it to the egg
enable multiple sperm to fertilize an egg
stimulate the ovaries to release multiple eggs
make the uterus more hospitable to developing embryos
cause an egg to divide into multiple eggs
Which of the following is considered to be an advantage to asexual reproduction?
It produces haploid offspring.
It requires fertilization.
It requires only a sperm or an egg.
It generates genetic variability.
It eliminates the need to find a mate.
A hermaphrodite is an animal that __________.
must use external fertilization
reproduces only asexually
contains both male and female reproductive systems in its body
can create zygotes of either sex
fuses with one of the opposite sex
How does a zygote differ from an egg?
A zygote is much larger.
A zygote divides by meiosis.
A zygote is smaller.
A zygote consists of more than one cell.
A zygote has more chromosomes.
External fertilization occurs mostly in __________.
animals that reproduce asexually
In humans, the testes are located outside the abdominal cavity within the scrotum because _____.
blood flow to the scrotum is not interrupted during erection
sperm are unable to mature properly at the higher temperatures found within the abdominal cavity
this enables the testes to be moved by muscles
the elevated pressure within the abdominal cavity would collapse the small passageways within the testes
this location allows for a shorter pathway to the urethra
Which part of the male reproductive tract warehouses sperm before their exit from the male's body?
What structure is part of both the excretory and reproductive systems in males?
Where is one likely to find sperm without all the components of semen?
in the urethra
at the junction of the vas deferens and the urethra
in the epididymis
in the vagina of a woman who's trying to become pregnant
at the tip of the penis
How do ovulated oocytes get into the uterus?
Cilia within an oviduct create currents that sweep the egg toward the uterus.
Contractions of the oviduct propel oocytes to the uterus.
Muscular projections of the oviduct grasp the oocyte and force it into the uterus.
The oocyte actively swims through the oviduct, using its flagellum.
Ovaries are within the uterus, so the ovulated egg is already within the uterus.
On its way to fertilize a human egg, a sperm cell does not have to pass through which of the following?
After ovulation occurs, the empty follicle __________.
changes into the corpus luteum and makes hormones
immediately initiates menstruation
can be recycled to produce more eggs
becomes the site of the implantation of a fertilized egg
The gamete of a female has _____ chromosomes compared to the gamete of the male.
the same number of
half as many
twice as many
Meiosis to produce the female egg cell is initiated in the _____.
From a single cell, oogenesis will produce __________.
a primary oocyte
four polar bodies
four ova (eggs)
an ovum and polar bodies
= 12 in a hypothetical species. In gametogenesis, the number of chromosomes in a developing sperm cell would be _____ and in a first polar body would be _____.
six ... six
twelve ... twelve
three ... three
six ... three
three ... six
In spermatogenesis, each primary spermatocyte gives rise to _____ sperm.
Where do developing sperm cells undergo meiosis?
in the prostate gland
in the epididymis
in the seminal vesicle
in the vas deferens
in the seminiferous tubules
What does an ovum have that the sperm also has?
a sac full of digestive enzymes
very little cytoplasm
a huge mitochondrion
a haploid set of chromosomes
an external food source
At what point does the secondary oocyte complete meiosis?
when acrosomal enzymes begin to break down the egg's jelly coat
after it is penetrated by a sperm cell
when the secondary oocyte implants in the endometrium of the uterus
when the luteinizing hormone triggers ovulation
when the egg is fully surrounded by sperm and semen
The gamete of the female has _____ cytoplasm compared to the male gamete.
half as much
the same amount of
The amount of cytoplasm found in an egg is _____ that found in the polar bodies.
no more than
half as much as
What is the source of the hormones that, when suddenly absent, are directly responsible for the onset of menstruation?
Which is a true statement about luteinizing hormone in the female reproductive system?
It causes mitosis of the primary oocyte.
It triggers development of endometrium in the corpus luteum.
It is responsible for mediating the production of estrogen and progesterone simultaneously.
It is produced by the hypothalamus.
It inhibits ovulation.
Which of the following hormones is the first to increase significantly every 28 days or so, initiating the ovarian cycle?
human chorionic gonadotropin
If a woman wants to become pregnant, what is the optimal day on which to have sexual intercourse?
three days before ovulation
one week before ovulation
one week after ovulation
the day before menstruation is due to begin
the day of ovulation
A peak in _____ triggers ovulation around the _____ day of the monthly cycle.
FSH ... 2nd
LH ... 7th
progesterone ... 14th
estrogen ... 20th
LH ... 14th
One early, and inexpensive, approach to infertility is to test a woman's urine for a hormone that would indicate a high probability of ovulation. What hormone is this test kit designed to detect?
Pregnancy tests detect a hormone in a woman's urine that is present only when an embryo is developing in her uterus. This hormone is secreted by _____.
Birth control pills contain synthetic estrogen and progesterone. How might these hormones prevent pregnancy?
They cause the corpus luteum to degenerate.
They cause the lining of the uterus to be sloughed off.
They prevent the monthly development of the uterine lining.
They keep the pituitary from secreting FSH and LH, so ovulation does not occur.
They trigger premature ovulation, before an egg is mature.
Which one of the following is the
effective method of birth control?
MAP (morning after pills)
A vasectomy is an effective technique for birth control in males because it __________.
severs the route used by the sperm to exit the male's body
causes the prostate gland to enlarge and seal off the vas deferens
severs the capillaries of the testes and prevents the arrival of pituitary hormone
reduces the secretions of the seminal vesicle and prostate and, as a result, sperm are then destroyed in the female reproductive tract
severs the capillaries to the spermatozoa, which then die
Which of the following most reduces the chances of both conception and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases?
birth control pill
Sperm has several components; the function of the acrosome is to __________.
propel the sperm as they swim through the fluid of the female reproductive tract
release an enzyme that breaks down the jellylike matrix that surrounds the egg
nourish and protect sperm
metabolize the sugars provided by the semen for energy
chemically identify the proper oviduct
During cleavage, the single large cell of the zygote is converted to a __________.
multicellular embryo consisting of smaller cells
three-layered embryo called a gastrula
Cell divisions called _____ proceed so rapidly in the developing embryo that there is no growth of the cells between divisions.
One difference between the blastocyst and gastrula stages of development is that __________.
the gastrula consists of three tissue layers
blastocyst cells are more differentiated than gastrula cells
there are many more cells in a blastocyst
the blastocyst is a solid ball of cells, but the gastrula is hollow
the blastocyst consists of more cell layers
Which one of the following describes the correct sequence of stages during embryogenesis?
cleavage, gastrulation, blastocyst formation
blastocyst formation, gastrulation, cleavage
blastocyst formation, cleavage, gastrulation
gastrulation, cleavage, blastocyst formation
cleavage, blastocyst formation, gastrulation
The nervous system is derived from __________.
all three embryonic tissue layers
both ectoderm and mesoderm
The heart and muscles form from the embryonic _____.
endoderm and ectoderm
What is the embryonic origin of the lining of the digestive system?
all three embryonic tissue layers
both endoderm and mesoderm
Someone may have webbed toes because __________.
of a failure of apoptosis
of a failure of induction
of a failure of gestation
they are displaying characteristics of humans' avian ancestry
of a failure of menstruation
The _____ is the precise site of embryo implantation in a normal pregnancy.
Which one of the following is a function of the placenta?
providing carbon dioxide to the fetus
obtaining nutrients from the mother's bloodstream
providing white blood cells to the fetus
providing blood from the mother to the fetus
carrying wastes from the mother to the fetus' circulatory system
If you wanted to examine the extraembryonic membranes surrounding a human embryo, you would have to cut through which of the following to see all the others?
During the second trimester __________.
embryonic gill pouches are present
the fetus experiences very rapid growth
an ultrasound can be performed to determine the gender of the fetus
the mother may feel movements, and fetal activity may be visible through the abdominal wall
the fetus weighs about 3.5 kg
Which of the following describes the positive feedback that occurs during childbirth?
Dilation of the cervix leads to expulsion of the infant and the placenta.
Uterine contractions stimulate the release of oxytocin, which inhibits further uterine contractions.
Increasing levels of prolactin promote milk production in the mammary glands.
Uterine contractions stimulate the release of oxytocin, which stimulates further uterine contractions.
Uterine contractions stimulate the release of estrogen, which stimulates further uterine contractions.
Which one of the following is a typical cause of female infertility?
a failure to ovulate
failure of the hymen to rupture
too many eggs
low sperm count
Which one of the following is a correct statement about in vitro fertilization?
Embryos develop in a test tube.
At about the gastrula stage, at least one embryo is implanted in a woman's uterus.
Sperm are retrieved from a man's testes.
The eggs and sperm are mixed together in a petri dish.
Ovaries are removed from the woman.
Prior to implementation, what may be the difference between embryos that will lead to successful pregnancy and those that will not?
rate of cell division
location of implementation in the uterus
low sperm count
How many great-grandchildren would a woman have to take care of to pass along as many of her genes to future generations as are present in just one of her children?
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