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13. Passing on Life’s Information: DNA Structure, and Replication
This activity contains 40 questions.
A gene contains many chromosomes that are composed of proteins.
A chromosome contains many genes that encode for proteins.
A gene is composed of proteins that are found on the chromosomes
A chromosome contains many genes that are composed of proteins.
Consider the backbone of the DNA double helix. Which of the following statements about the structure of the double helix is FALSE?
The backbone has directionality.
The backbone is not straight but twisted.
The DNA backbone forms the central core of the DNA molecule.
It is composed of alternating sugar and phosphate groups.
Genes provide the information needed to produce _____ in the cell.
How do mutations affect an organism?
They may cause the development of a disease-causing allele or a beneficial allele, or they may have no noticeable effect.
They may cause the development of a beneficial allele.
They may cause the development of a disease-causing allele.
In some cases, they may have no noticeable effect.
Which of the following statements about the process of DNA replication is true?
It involves the enzyme DNA ligase, which corrects point mutations.
The sequence on the new strand is always identical to one of the old parent strands.
Adenine pairs with guanine, and cytosine pairs with thymine.
It utilizes DNA polymerase, which catalyzes the reaction that adds a new nucleotide to the growing strand.
Which of the following statements describes a DNA molecule?
If the DNA molecule is thought of as a rigid, twisted rope ladder, the sugar and phosphate groups represent the rungs of the ladder.
If the DNA molecule is thought of as a rigid, twisted rope ladder, the phosphate groups represent rungs on the ladder.
If the DNA molecule is thought of as a rigid, twisted rope ladder, the interactions of the nitrogenous bases represent the rungs of the ladder.
If the DNA molecule is thought of as a rigid, twisted rope ladder, the interactions of the nitrogenous bases represent the flexible rope portion.
A single chromatid is composed of _________.
one strand of DNA
a portion of a DNA strand
a DNA double helix
two DNA double helices
The DNA base sequence TTGCGATCG on the parent strand would code for which of the following sequences on the newly synthesized strand?
According to one of the fundamental rules of base pairings, which of the following base pairings is correct?
If you took a normal cell and replaced its thymine (T) with radioactive T and allowed that cell to divide once, which of the following results would you expect?
The DNA would not be radioactive in either daughter cell.
The DNA in each of the daughter cells would be radioactive.
The mRNA made by the daughter cells would be radioactive.
The DNA in one of the daughter cells would be radioactive but not in the other daughter cell.
A DNA sample has 20% C, 23% G, 27% T, and 30% A. This sample must have come from ________.
a double-stranded piece of DNA
a single strand of DNA
a pair of homologous chromosomes
a bacterial cell
Why is cancer so much more common in older people than in younger people?
At approximately age 40, the cell mechanism to correct mutations stops functioning.
Younger people have much better correcting mechanisms in their replication machinery.
For most types of cancer, it usually takes multiple mutations to occur in a cell before it will become cancerous.
In older people, the DNA polymerase enzymes have been used repeatedly, and their ability to correct mutations has been exhausted.
For a mutation to play any heritable role, it must _______.
occur in a germ-line cell
occur in a somatic cell
cause a phenotypic change in the individual that has the mutation
occur on a sex chromosome
DNA replication occurs at an unbelievably fast rate. Once replication is complete, a _____ number of mistakes are likely to occur.
Which of the following would indicate a base-pairing mutation in DNA?
a C paired with a G
a G paired with a T
an A paired with a T
How many enzymes are typically produced from a single gene?
an unlimited number
A DNA template has the following base sequence: GGTCAATCG. What would be the sequence on the complementary strand?
Which of the following statements about gene mutations is FALSE?
They may result in an adaptation.
They may result in a genetic disorder.
They may have no phenotypic effect on an organism.
They are responsible for most of the phenotypic differences between siblings.
In their Nobel Prize-winning experiments, Beadle and Tatum exposed fungal spores to X-rays to induce mutations. To test if the spores had actually been mutated, the scientists inoculated various media with the mutated spores. Which of the following media was used as a control in the experiment?
minimal medium + arginine
minimal medium + nucleic acids
minimal medium + vitamins
Which of the following statements about DNA replication is FALSE?
It always produces an exact copy of the entire DNA in the cell.
It occurs prior to mitosis and meiosis.
It occurs in all living organisms.
It produces a new DNA molecule that is a hybrid of one old parent strand and one newly synthesized strand.
Which of the following sets is composed of DNA that is most similar?
sister chromatids before crossing over
sister chromatids after crossing over
the two strands of a DNA double helix
Which of the following statements is consistent with the hypothesis that DNA is the molecule of inheritance?
Before mitosis, eukaryotic cells double the amount of guanine and halve the amount of cytosine in the nucleus.
Gametes get twice as much thymine as the original parent cell.
The amount of each of the four nitrogenous bases varies from species to species.
The amount of adenine is much greater than the amount of thymine in the cells of most organisms.
If a point mutation occurred during DNA replication, you would immediately expect to see ________.
a change to the DNA template but not the newly synthesized strand of DNA
a change to both the newly synthesized DNA strand and the template
a change to the newly synthesized DNA strand and the template
a change to the newly synthesized DNA strand but not the template
Mutations that increase trinucleotide repeats in a gene would most likely _________.
change a single amino acid in the protein produced from the gene
increase the size of the protein produced from the gene
decrease the size of the protein produced from the gene
have no effect on the protein produced by the gene
A single strand of DNA is a very stable molecule. However, the two strands of the double helix are not so stable and are easily separated from each other. The best explanation for this is that ___________.
the phosphodiester bonds that hold the strands of the double helix together are weak and easily broken
the covalent bonds that hold the strands of the double helix together are weak and easily broken
the hydrogen bonds that hold the strands of the double helix together are weak and easily broken
the ionic bonds that hold the strands of the double helix together are weak and easily broken
A certain organism's DNA is composed of 21% guanine. What percentage of thymine does it have?
A DNA sequence reads ATCGCTATCGAC. If the fourth nucleotide is changed to a T, the fourth nucleotide on the complementary strand would be _________.
The types of mutations that produce new alleles and drive evolution must occur in __________.
cells that have a fast rate of mitosis
If a certain type of
was mutated such that it could not synthesize a particular amino acid, on which of the following types of media would it grow?
minimal medium + vitamins
minimal medium + glucose
The nucleotides in one strand of DNA are attached to the nucleotides of another strand of DNA by _______.
bonds between the sugar of one nucleotide and the base of the next
hydrogen bonds between complementary bases
bonds between the phosphate of one nucleotide and the base of the next
hydrogen bonds between phosphates
If the sequence CATGTA was used as a template in DNA replication, what would the sequence of bases be on the newly synthesized strand?
A point mutation ___________.
can sometimes be detrimental
involves multiple nucleotides
cannot be repaired
will always be advantageous
An organism's DNA contains 22% cytosine. How much thymine does it have?
DNA replication errors can be corrected by _______.
Which of the following is an appropriate base pairing?
adenine and thymine
cytosine and adenine
cytosine and thymine
thymine and guanine
Which of the following best describes the products of DNA replication?
one new strand of DNA and one old template strand of DNA
two old template strands of DNA
two new strands of DNA
two strands of DNA, with each strand consisting of some of the old template strand and the newly synthesized DNA
The difference between two alleles is the result of _______.
the type of bonds used between the nucleotides
the sequence of nucleotides
the arrangement of deoxyribose sugar
the arrangement of phosphate groups
A gene is ___________.
all the DNA on a given chromosome
a segment of DNA with information to code for a single protein
The parts of a nucleotide that do not change are the ____________.
sugars and phosphate groups
If ________ makes an error that is not repaired in its proofreading mechanism, a mutation will result.
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