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Chapter Post-Test

This activity contains 43 questions.

Question 1
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While making repairs, a zoo had to place a species of bird from Africa in the same enclosure as a bird species from South America. To everyone's surprise, some of the birds mated and produced hybrid offspring. The hybrids were eventually separated from the other birds and placed in their own enclosure. Again to everyone's surprise the hybrids mated and produced offspring. According to today's biological concept of a species, how should all these birds be classified?
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Question 2
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Approximately one-third of all species of fish live in freshwater, and the other two-thirds are saltwater species. However, freshwater lakes and rivers cover only about 1% of Earth's surface, compared with saltwater, which covers 75% of Earth's surface. Which of the following arguments might best explain the diversity of freshwater fish in this spatially limited habitat?
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Question 3
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Two species of monkeys are captured in the Amazonian forest and placed in the zoo. The zookeeper feels safe in putting the two species together in the same enclosure because they are not known to interbreed in the wild. However, the monkeys are soon interbreeding and producing hybrid offspring. The zookeeper checks the records and discovers that although these two species live in the same jungle, one species is active only at night and the other is active only during the day. Which intrinsic isolating mechanism has been keeping these two species from interbreeding?
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Question 4
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Which type of speciation is associated with a geographical barrier that separates two populations of organisms?
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Question 5
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Female spiders are notorious hunters. For some spider species, the male spider must perform a certain type of "dance" before mating with the female of that species. Male spiders of other species that do not know this "dance" are devoured before they have a chance to mate. This is an example of ______.
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Question 6
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Hybridization between different plant species producing more than two sets of chromosomes is called ______.
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Question 7
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Geographic isolation is often referred to as ______.
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Question 8
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Which of the following is a post-mating reproductive isolation method?
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Question 9
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The relatively rapid emergence of numerous new species all from a common ancestor is referred to as ______.
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Question 10
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Which of the following organisms would be the least likely to show drastic evolutionary changes over a long period?
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Question 11
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Imagine that a flock of birds is blown off course during migration, and they land on an island lacking birds. They evolve rapidly into several new species as they exploit new habitats. What has occurred?
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Question 12
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The ichthyosaur was a large aquatic reptile. Fossils show that it had a dorsal fin and a tail just like fish, even though its closest relatives were terrestrial reptiles that had neither dorsal fins nor aquatic tails. Compared with the fins and tail of fishes, the dorsal fins and tails of ichthyosaurs are ______.
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Question 13
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How did Darwin's theory of evolution change the way organisms were classified?
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Question 14
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One drawback of classical taxonomy was that in it, the relationships between organisms were often based on ______.
End of Question 14

Question 15
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Using a cladistic model, organisms with ______ shared derived characteristics would be more ______ related.
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Question 16
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The term macroevolution refers to ________.
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Question 17
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Ernst Mayer was instrumental in advancing the biological species concept, which stressed ______.
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Question 18
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Does the fact that lions and tigers mate successfully in a zoo negate the fact that these are separate species?
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Question 19
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The development of a new species through evolution is called __________.
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Question 20
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Geographic separation is of paramount importance in the process of ___________.
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Question 21
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The biological species concept is based on the ______________ behavior of species.
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Question 22
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Even though two species of hawks live in the same forest, one species feeds on rodents and the other feeds on birds. Which type of isolation does this represent?
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Question 23
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There are two varieties of spadefoot toads living in the southwestern deserts. One breeds in February and the other breeds in April. Which type of isolation does this represent?
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Question 24
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Two species of orioles live in the same forest. The female of each species is attracted to the distinctive song of males of its own species. Which type of isolation does this represent?
End of Question 24

Question 25
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Two species of beetles occupy the same rotting logs in a forest. If a male of species A attempts to mate with a female of species B, he is unsuccessful because his reproductive structures do not fit into hers. Which type of isolating mechanism does this represent?
End of Question 25

Question 26
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When two species of grass frogs mate in the same pond, the sperm of one species may come into contact with the eggs of another species, yet fertilization does not take place because the egg lacks matching receptors for chemicals on the sperm. Which type of isolation does this represent?
End of Question 26

Question 27
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Two species of frogs mate in the same pond, and sometimes the sperm of one species fertilizes the eggs of another species in the pond. The tadpoles produced have misshapen mouth parts and cannot feed. Which type of isolation does this represent?
End of Question 27

Question 28
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Most people know that the only way to produce a mule is to mate a horse with a donkey. Trying to mate a mule with a mule does not work. Which type of isolation does this represent?
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Question 29
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Which of the following processes is capable of producing a new species within a single generation?
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Question 30
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The evolution of a single species into a number of new species by filling new ecologic niches is known as _________.
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Question 31
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The fossil record has many examples of one type of organism gradually changing into another type of organism. This is an example of ___________.
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Question 32
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Sometimes the fossil record shows what appears to be the sudden disappearance of one species with the sudden appearance of a related species. Which type of evolution does this represent?
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Question 33
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The term binomial nomenclature refers to the rule that _____.
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Question 34
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Carolus Linnaeus was important to the study of biology because he _________.
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Question 35
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The field of biology that studies the diversity and relatedness of organisms is called ________.
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Question 36
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Which of the following classification categories is the largest and most inclusive?
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Question 37
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Which of the following is one of the problems with phylogenetic trees?
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Question 38
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Scientists do not use analogous structures to establish evolutionary relationships because they _________.
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Question 39
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Classical taxonomy differs from cladistics because classical taxonomy ________.
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Question 40
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The first part of the two-part name for every organism is the _______ of the species.
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Question 41
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Which of the following includes all related genera?
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Question 42
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Which of the following is the only group in which microevolution can occur?
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Question 43
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If we base an analysis of phylogenetic relationships solely on a study of comparative anatomy, we might arrive at incorrect conclusions because of _____.
End of Question 43

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