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Chapter 1. Science as a Way of Learning: A Guide to the Natural World
Chapter 1 Post-Test
Chapter 1 Post-Test
This activity contains 30 questions.
Given what we've seen regarding scientific progress in the past decade, what is likely to happen ten years from now?
advances we cannot even imagine currently
predictable advances similar to current technology
a downturn in the rate of scientific progress
a new type of technology not based on scientific knowledge
In which of the following situations would an understanding of science help inform your decision?
what types of food you should eat
whether or not you should have your child vaccinated
whether or not you should attempt to reduce your consumption of carbon dioxide
whether or not you should smoke
All of these are situations in which science can help you make an informed decision.
Which of the following statements about scientific theories is most accurate?
All scientists accept scientific theories to be true.
A scientific theory is just a hunch.
A scientific theory is supported by many independent observations and experiments.
A scientific theory is a proven fact.
Whenever you propose a possible answer to a question, your proposal is said to be ________.
For a hypothesis to be valid, it must ______.
accurately explain every aspect of the observed natural phenomenon
be based on scientific experiments and not on observations
be proven true by scientific experiments
In a given experiment, what is a control?
It is used only if the hypothesis is proven to be false.
It is an adjustable condition in the experiment.
It is the initial condition of a system prior to experimentation.
It is a method of statistical analysis used to verify results.
You observe that people in your biology class who wear hats tend to be taller than those who don't. Which of the following would be a reasonable hypothesis based on this observation?
Tall people tend to study biology.
Wearing hats makes you shorter.
Tall biologists tend to wear hats.
Being a biologist makes you taller.
A well-designed experiment will ______.
have multiple variables that are investigated in every trial
be continuously observed and monitored to discover the results
maintain all variables of the experiment exactly the same in every trial
have only one critical variable that is changed over several trials
Which of the following is NOT a testable hypothesis?
People who wear hats indoors are taller than those who don't.
Eating bacon is good for your heart.
Birds navigate using Earth's magnetic field.
Ancient Romans were smarter than ancient Greeks.
In Pasteur's experiment on spontaneous generation, he formulated two hypotheses: that living material is derived from nonliving material, and that living material is derived from living material outside a flask. Given what you know about his experiments and the nature of the scientific method, which of the following would be a reasonable alternative hypothesis?
A particle trap promotes the spontaneous generation of life.
Changes in the types of flask would result in different life forms found in the broth.
External factors must combine with factors in the flask to produce life.
Sterilization methods alter the probability of spontaneous generation.
Which of the following statements is true about an experimental variable?
It is the result of a poorly controlled experiment.
It is the variation of results found in each experiment.
It is an adjustable condition in the experiment.
It is the condition that exists prior to experimentation.
What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory?
A theory is established by experimentation, whereas a hypothesis remains to be tested.
A hypothesis is an idea, whereas a theory is a proven fact.
They are essentially the same.
A theory is just a hunch, whereas a hypothesis has been verified.
Staring out the window one day, you notice a line of ants crawling across the sidewalk. The line leads to a wet spot on the sidewalk and then back to the anthill in the ground. You are quite curious as to what prompts this behavior. If you were following the scientific method of investigation, what would your next step be?
Draw conclusions about what is attracting the ant.
Form several possible hypotheses to explain what attracts the ants.
Propose a theory that explains the ants' behavior.
Develop one or more questions related to your observations.
A city wants to determine whether fluoride is an effective additive against tooth decay. The city is large enough that there are several sources of water serving different areas. What is the best control for the experiment?
fluoride in the toothpaste of some residents
babies with no tooth decay
water with no fluoride added
water treated with an antimicrobial agent
A control group is critical to many experiments. Linus Pauling investigated the effectiveness of vitamin C in fighting the common cold. Pauling gathered 90 people who had colds. He divided the group into thirds. One-third of the group took 5,000 milligrams of vitamin C per day. Another third took a brand-name antihistamine. The final third used a cold-air vaporizer. The vitamin C group recovered faster, but the antihistamine group was more comfortable, and the vaporizer group had fewer colds. Does Pauling's experiment have a proper control group?
This is a properly designed experiment with a control group.
This is not a properly designed experiment with a control group.
People who are uninformed about evolution may state that it is "just a theory." What they often mean is that they believe it is simply a hunch: an unproven and little-supported notion about the nature of life on Earth. Why is this statement NOT accurate?
In science, theories are equated with facts; therefore, evolution is a fact.
In science, a theory is a set of principles supported by a large body of evidence; therefore, evolution is more than just a hunch.
In science, theories are proven to be true; therefore, evolution is more than just a hunch.
In science, a hunch often leads to a theory.
As he begins an experiment, a research pharmacist states that drug XYZ is more effective for curing a certain disease than drug ABC. That statement is an example of ___________.
A theory must ______________ if it is going to be accepted by the scientific community.
explain both natural and supernatural events
also be a hypothesis
What is the order of operations for the scientific method?
observation, question, hypothesis, experiment, conclusion
observation, question, experiment, hypothesis
experiment, observation, hypothesis, question, conclusion
hypothesis, experiment, observation, conclusion
A scientist wonders whether applying a certain fertilizer will increase the production of apples in an orchard. What is the variable to be tested in any experiment devised to answer this question?
when the apples are picked
the amount of sunlight
the amount of fertilizer applied
the amount of water the trees receive
What did Pasteur specifically show in his classic nineteenth-century experiment?
Sterilization is not an effective way to stop bacterial growth.
Spontaneous generation is false.
Life originates from dust in the air.
Flasks remain sterile under certain conditions.
For a clinical trial to be effective, it must be_____ and _______.
Why is a "pet rock" NOT really a live pet?
You buy it at the store.
It is made of minerals.
It does not respond to its environment.
It does not "breathe."
Which of the following is the largest, most inclusive level of organization found in living things?
Your backyard contains trees, grass, ants, mushrooms, birds, mosquitoes, and bacteria. This list describes ________.
Which of the following CANNOT be used to differentiate living things from non-living ones?
its capacity to reproduce through DNA replication
its level of complexity and organization
its capacity to move relative to its surroundings
its capacity to assimilate and use energy
A cell is to a tissue as an organism is to a(n)_____.
Why is evolution referred to as "biology's chief unifying principle"?
It is a popular theory.
It is the most disputed biological theory.
It can explain the vast majority of Earth's biodiversity.
It is a current hypothesis regarding biodiversity.
In the early 1800s, scientists who studied living things were no longer called "naturalists" and became more like modern-day "biologists." What was the major factor that determined this change?
Life scientists began to describe the rules of the living world instead of just describing the forms in the living world.
Life scientists began cataloguing the many varieties of living organisms in the world.
Life scientists left the natural world and moved into the laboratory, where they could do more experiments.
Life scientists took a vote and decided to make this change.
What makes biology unique among sciences?
It is the only physical science.
Biology focuses on the study of the living world.
It is involves the study of the history of the planet.
It is not a true science, like physics.
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