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Chapter 2 Post-Test

This activity contains 33 questions.

Question 1
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The drawings of atoms in your textbook are actually based on the "planetary model" of what an atom looks like. If a three-dimensional model of an atom could be constructed that is as big as the room you are sitting in, most of the atom's volume would be occupied by ______.
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Question 2
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Before the nature of atoms was known, many men (known as alchemists) tried to turn iron into gold. However, none of them ever succeeded. If you could truly turn iron into gold, how would you do it?
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Question 3
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The atomic number of carbon is 6. A neutral carbon atom has __________ protons and __________ electrons.
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Question 4
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If you examined the human body and the crust of Earth, which of the following combinations of elements would you find were MOST common?
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Question 5
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Protons and neutrons are said to have a mass of approximately 1 dalton each. Recall that electrons are thought to have virtually no mass. Therefore, a hydrogen atom (with an atomic number of 1) would have a mass of approximately 1 dalton, and an oxygen atom (with an atomic number of 8) would have a mass of approximately 16 daltons. How much mass would one molecule of water have?
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Question 6
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If the atomic number of an atom is 20, ________.
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Question 7
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An element with 12 protons, 12 neutrons, and 12 electrons has an atomic number of _____.
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Question 8
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Atom A has enough electrons to completely fill three electron shells, and atom B has enough electrons to fill two and a half electron shells. What can you predict from this information?
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Question 9
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Helium has a filled outermost electron shell and thus _________.
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Question 10
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A cell is to an organ as _______ is to a molecule.
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Question 11
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What happens when a water molecule is formed?
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Question 12
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Which of the following is formed by the sharing of electrons between two atoms that do NOT differ in electronegativities?
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Question 13
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If an atom has an atomic number of 7, how many electrons are in the atom's outer shell?
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Question 14
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Sodium has one electron in its third shell, and fluorine has seven electrons in its second shell. Which of the following statements is an accurate prediction of what will happen when these two elements bond?
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Question 15
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Which of the following statements correctly describes the difference between a polar covalent bond and a non-polar covalent bond?
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Question 16
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A large difference in electronegativity between two atoms is important in regard to what type of bond?
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Question 17
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What does the phrase "Energy always seeks its lowest state" imply about chemical bonds?
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Question 18
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Nitrogen has an atomic number of 7. Given that it can readily form covalent bonds with hydrogen, how many hydrogen atoms would you expect would bond with one nitrogen atom?
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Question 19
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A small difference in electronegativity between two atoms is important in regard to what type of bond?
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Question 20
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The fundamental difference between covalent bonds and ionic bonds is that in covalent bonds ______, whereas in ionic bonds ______.
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Question 21
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Look carefully at the following chemical equation. What is INCORRECT about this equation? 3 C + 16 H →3 CH4
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Question 22
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The symbol 4 H2O represents _________.
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Question 23
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An atom with an unequal number of protons and electrons is called _____.
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Question 24
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What number and type of subatomic particles would you expect to see in the nucleus of carbon-14?
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Question 25
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Why do water molecules stick to other water molecules?
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Question 26
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If the shape of a molecule is changed, all the following will also change EXCEPT the molecule's __________.
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Question 27
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Which of the following materials will dissolve?
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Question 28
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Why do salt molecules dissolve in water?
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Question 29
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On an early morning walk, you observe beads of water that have formed on the surface of leaves overnight. What property of water allows these beads to form?
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Question 30
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You may have noticed that unlike many other compounds, the frozen form of water is less dense than the liquid form. What fundamental property of water causes this phenomenon?
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Question 31
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An acidic solution _________.
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Question 32
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You have been given the task of determining which of three known liquids is an acid. You have measured the concentration of hydroxide ions in all three solutions. Solution A has the most hydroxide ions, solution B has the fewest hydroxide ions, and the concentration of solution C is between those of A and B. Which solution is the most acidic?
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Question 33
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To neutralize a solution currently measured at pH 1, you need to add _________.
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