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Chapter 16 Post-Test

This activity contains 32 questions.

Question 1
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Richard Dawkins's book on the theories behind evolution is titled The Blind Watchmaker. What is the significance of this rather ironic title?
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Question 2
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Today, hospitals contain bacteria resistant to many types of antibiotics that used to be effective years ago. Using Darwin's theory of evolution, what might be a reasonable hypothesis for the existence of resistant bacteria?
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Question 3
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The differential adaptation of individual organisms to their environment selects the traits that will be passed on with greater frequency from one generation to the next. This process is called ________.
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Question 4
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If we were to compare the science of biology to the construction of a house, evolution would be comparable to ___________.
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Question 5
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The gradual development of strains of bacteria resistant to antibiotics can be explained by _________.
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Question 6
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What would happen if we subjected a population of bacteria to an antibiotic to which they possessed NO natural resistance?
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Question 7
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How many years did Darwin spend on the voyage of the HMS Beagle?
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Question 8
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Before Darwin's theory of evolution, most scientists presumed that organisms were ______.
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Question 9
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A tree frog is sitting on a limb of a tree when an arboreal snake suddenly attacks it. To escape predation, the frog leaps from the limb to the ground. The fall would be fatal, except that the frog spreads its fingers and toes, forming small parachutes that break its fall. After its initial discovery, the frog regularly escapes predators using this procedure. Through time and use, the webbing in its fingers and toes expands and stretches so that they become even more parachute-like and are more effective at braking the frog's fall. When this frog mates with a female of the same species, we would expect all of its offspring to have ______.
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Question 10
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According to Lamarck, how did the giraffe get such a long neck?
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Question 11
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In what way was Charles Lyell, a contemporary of Darwin, famous?
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Question 12
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In what way was Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck famous?
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Question 13
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Georges Cuvier's ideas on catastrophes ___________.
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Question 14
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Darwin's studies of the finches he discovered on the Galapagos Islands _________.
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Question 15
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Which of the following organisms provided Darwin with much insight as to how a single ancestral species might diverge into several species occupying divergent habitats?
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Question 16
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Some moles have eyes that are so reduced that they function only minimally in light perception. Some snakes have hind-limb bones that are reduced completely to nonfunctional remnants. Which of the following might be a plausible evolutionary argument for the reason structures like these become minimized?
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Question 17
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In what way was Alfred Russel Wallace an important figure in Darwin's time?
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Question 18
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Which of the following was one of the major hurdles in the nineteenth century to persuading scientists to accept the process of evolution as a viable theory?
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Question 19
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The convergence of several lines of evidence from 1937 to 1950 that supported Darwin's theory resulted in what is now called ____________.
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Question 20
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The embryos of human beings possess gill slits at one stage of their development. Which of the following is the evolutionary explanation for this fact?
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Question 21
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Which of the following is an example of a confusing natural phenomenon made clear by the principle of common descent?
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Question 22
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Evolutionary theory has been supported by the modern synthesis. What does that term mean?
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Question 23
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Which of the following is one of the vexing problems associated with studying evolution?
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Question 24
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Which of the following is one of the greatest problems that scientists have in explaining the theory of evolution?
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Question 25
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Often the concept of microevolution (which describes such phenomena as antibiotic resistance in some infectious bacteria) is cited as an accepted form of evolution whereas the large-scale evolution of species is rejected. What aspect of large-scale evolution makes it more difficult to comprehend for some people?
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Question 26
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Any artifact preserved in rocks that is evidence of the past presence of an organism is called a ________.
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Question 27
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Which of the following pieces of evidence, if actually discovered, would most likely DISCREDIT the theory of evolution?
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Question 28
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Which of the following is considered evidence for evolution?
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Question 29
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Which of the following has DNA sequences that would cause it to be relatively close to humans on an evolutionary tree diagram?
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Question 30
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The evidence from fossil remains is that the primate line that gave rise to humans appeared NO MORE than ________ years ago.
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Question 31
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What did John Endler's experiments on evolution show?
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Question 32
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Because of a history of common ancestry, the forelimb of a bat is very similar to the forelimb of a _________.
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