Lab 6: Frog Cardiovascular Physiology

1 .       Refer to Activity 2: Investigating the Refractory Period of Cardiac Muscle. What are extrasystoles? 

2 .       Refer to Activity 2: Investigating the Refractory Period of Cardiac Muscle. During which portion of the cardiac cycle was it possible to induce an extrasystole? 

3 .       Was it possible to tetanize the heart by administering multiple electrical shocks to the muscle at the rate of 20 stimuli/sec.?  

4 .       Why is it important that the heart muscle cannot be tetanized? [Hint]

5 .       Refer to Activity 3: Examining the Effect of Vagus Nerve Stimulation. What is the initial effect of vagal stimulation on the heart rate? 

6 .       Refer to Activity 4: Assessing the Effect of Temperature. What change occurred with the cold (5(C) Ringer's solution? 

7 .       What change occurred with the warm (32(C) Ringer's solution? 

8 .       What can be said about the relationship between heart rate and temperature? Choose all that apply: 

9 .       Refer to Activity 5: Assessing the Effect of Pilocarpine. What happened when the heart was bathed in the pilocarpine solution? 

10 .       Refer to Activity 6: Assessing the Effect of Atropine. What was the effect of atropine on the heart? 

11 .       Atropine is ____________ to pilocarpine, whereas atropine and pilocarpine are both ____________ in their effects on heart activity. 

12 .       Refer to Activity 7: Assessing the Effect of Epinephrine. What was the effect of epinephrine on heart rate? 

13 .       What do the effects of epinephrine mimic? 

14 .       Refer to Activity 8: Assessing the Effects of Digitalis. What is the effect of digitalis on the heart? 

15 .       Refer to Activity 9: Assessing the Effect of Various Ions. How does calcium affect the heart rate? 

16 .       How does sodium affect the heart rate? 

17 .       How does potassium affect the heart rate? 

18 .       Which of the ions, if any produced arrythmia? Choose all that apply: 

19 .       What are ectopic pacemakers? 

20 .       The spontaneous depolarization of the heart muscle in the absence of external stimulation is ___________, whereas the spontaneous depolarization-repolarization events that occur in a regular and continuous manner in cardiac muscle is called ___________. 

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