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Chapter 14: Environmental Health and Toxicology
This activity contains 25 questions.
The leading cause of death in the world today is _________.
Which of the following is an example of a cultural hazard?
natural toxicant chemicals made by plants to defend themselves against the attack of insects
severe weather such as hurricanes
The use of insecticides (such as DDT) that have been banned by many developed countries goes on in some developing countries _______.
for aesthetic purposes only
because the benefits to human health are believed to outweigh the environmental costs
as a result of legislation by the United Nations
despite the availability of other technologies
International regulation of toxicants _______.
has resulted in the proposal of conventions for toxicant regulation
has been pioneered by the United States in efforts to register, assess the toxicity of, and regulate the use of persistent organic pollutants
has always proved to be weaker than regulation in the United States
does not exist
Dose-response curves are developed by _______.
graphing the response of model systems or organisms to specific doses of toxicants
listing the symptoms in detail in response to specific doses of toxicants
extrapolating from the outcomes of cases of toxin ingestion from hospital records
graphing the ingestion rate of toxins in the wild
Exposure to low amounts of a chemical over long periods of time is _______.
easier to detect in a person's system than high exposure over short periods of time
Environmental health advocates criticize the process of risk management, saying that it gives too much weight to _______.
risk assessment data
Synthetic pesticides _______.
can be distributed through the global circulation system and are therefore an international problem
are regional problems and should be dealt with on the regional scale
are local problems and should be dealt with on the local scale
are only problems where people are sensitive to them
Which of the following is NOT assessed by a toxicologist to determine the potential for environmental damage of a new chemical?
toxicity of the compound
amount of time the organism will spend with the toxicant
determining the probability that an organism will encounter the toxicant
the methods for counteracting the new chemical in the environment
A low LD
that a compound is not harmful to humans
a high toxicity
that 50 mg can be ingested without harm to humans
a low toxicity
How do endocrine disruptors affect human health at very low doses?
Endocrine disruptors prevent the secretion of digestive enzymes.
They mimic or block hormones that direct reproductive and developmental processes.
They interfere with nervous system function.
They stimulate the liver to make excessive growth hormones.
is the accumulation of toxicants in individual organisms in an ecosystem
is the increase in toxicant concentration as it moves up to the top trophic levels in the food chain
does not occur in natural populations
is the increase in consumers that follows increases in producer populations
Epidemiology is important for understanding human toxicology because _______.
it is also known as toxicology
it is a controlled "laboratory experiment" so it provides the most powerful data possible
its case history approaches are superior to other approaches
following individuals with exposure to toxicants or mutagens allows for the calculation of the rates at which health problems are likely to develop
We have good information about how some toxicants affect human health because _________.
even when someone is exposed to two chemicals at the same time, each chemical behaves as it would if it were alone
accidental exposures (chemical spills, poisonings) have been noticed immediately allowing the development of case histories that track the patient from exposure to the problems caused by the chemical
the EPA has the authority to ask for extensive testing if it suspects that a chemical may have toxic properties
the EPA, through the authority of the Toxic Substance Control Act, has tested virtually every chemical in use today
The "precautionary principle approach" to chemical testing ______________.
makes governments responsible for testing and making sure new products are safe
allows new products to move rapidly from the lab to consumers
increases the risk that consumers will be exposed to hazardous chemicals before the products are pulled from the shelf
prevents products from entering the marketplace until well tested
Which of the following statements is true regarding toxins?
Toxic exposures can be natural or as a result of exposure to man-made chemicals.
Toxic exposures all result from physical hazards.
Ecologists are responsible for measuring the effect of toxins on humans.
All toxic exposures are anthropogenic.
A child enters the pediatrician's office with symptoms that include anemia, hearing loss, kidney, and stomach problems. The family has just recently moved into a 50-year-old home and is doing renovations. What might be the problem with this child?
shaken baby syndrome
Scientists are interested in the effects of environmental hazards on wildlife because _________.
all of their research can take place in the field so they do not need expensive lab equipment
animals can serve as an early warning to the damage of environmental toxins
most diseases are spread from wild animals to humans
wildlife is immune to human-produced toxicants
An infant can receive _________.
ultraviolet rays from the sun while in the womb
milk from its mother in the womb
a blood transfusion from its mother in the womb
toxins from its mother while in the womb
Nicotine and alcohol have been shown to be harmful to a fetus in the womb in that they can lead to birth defects. Nicotine and alcohol are therefore potential _____.
BPA and phthalates are known _________.
Which of the following types of hazards spread quickly worldwide because of human mobility?
Risk is determined using the statistical description called _____, which helps us to determine the likelihood of a certain even occurring.
If an evaluating committee places the burden of proof of the safety of a new chemical on the manufacturer of the chemical, then the committee is using the _________.
Which of the following statements about the United States and Europe are true regarding toxins?
The United States has eradicated toxins from its country, while the European nations have not.
European nations tend to use the precautionary principle, whereas the United States follows the innocent-until-proven-guilty approach.
European nations tend to use the innocent-until-proven-guilty approach, while the United States follows the precautionary principle.
European nations have eradicated toxins from their countries, while the United States has not.
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